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Chapter 15: Lang. Acquisition. As coffee is an acquired taste… . Learning vs. Acquisition. Yes, there is a difference…. KidSpeak…. Other examples of “KidSpeak”?. FLA: More than Imitation. To acquire one’s first language: Learn words Derivational & Inflectional morphemes

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chapter 15 lang acquisition

Chapter 15: Lang. Acquisition

As coffee is an acquired taste…

learning vs acquisition

Learning vs. Acquisition

Yes, there is a difference…

kidspeak
KidSpeak…

Other examples of “KidSpeak”?

fla more than imitation
FLA: More than Imitation
  • To acquire one’s first language:
    • Learn words
      • Derivational & Inflectional morphemes
    • Recognize relationships
      • Sentence order
      • Word collocations
      • Semantics
      • Pragmatics
    • Make generalizations
the enablers
The Enablers
  • Innate Grammar
    • No genetic predisposition…
  • Motherese
  • Cognitive Development
  • Feedback
    • You catch more flies with honey…
    • Recasting
  • Critical period
syntax
Syntax
  • One-Word Stage
  • Two-Word Stage
  • Telegraphic Stage
  • Movement Rules
    • Y/N Questions
    • WH Questions
    • Passive
  • Reflexive & Pronouns
morphology
Kids Acquisition (abbreviated)

-ing

plural -s

possessive -’s

the, a

past tense -ed

3rd pers. sing. -s

auxillary BE

Parents Usage

the, a

-ing

plural -s

auxillary BE

possessive -’s

3rd pers. sing. –s

past tense -ed

Morphology

So what…?

morphology8
Kids Acquisition

-ing

plural -s

possessive -’s

the, a

past tense -ed

3rd pers. sing. -s

auxillary BE

Question:

Would you expect exactly the same order in Spanish, German & Chinese kids?

(Ex. 9)

Morphology
lexicon common 1 st words
Lexicon: Common 1st Words
  • Daddy, mommy, baby…
  • Juice, milk, cookie, water, apple…
  • Dog, cat, duck, horse… Car, boat…
  • Shoes, hat… Ball, blocks… Bottle, key…
  • Hot, all-gone, dirty, cold, here, there…
  • Up, sit, see, eat, go, down… Hi, bye…

Whaddya think: Why these words….?

morphological acquisition
Morphological Acquisition
  • Phrase final elements
  • Syllabicity
  • Intolerance of Ambiguity
    • Homophony
    • Exceptional
    • Allophonic
    • Clear Semantics
the ways we learn err
The Ways We Learn (& Err)
  • Whole Object Assumption
  • Type Assumption
  • Basic Similarities Assumption
  • Overextension
  • Underextension
  • Verb meanings
  • Dimensions
any questions

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

(next: Phonology)

phonological development
Phonological Development
  • She said “da-da”
    • Babbling
  • Put one foot in front of the other…
    • Vowels before Consonants
    • Stops “ Fricatives/Affricates
    • Labials “ Velars
    • Word-initial “ Word-final
    • Reception “ Production
early phonetic production
Early Phonetic Production
  • Substituted segments
  • Deleted syllables
  • Deleted final consonant
  • Reduced consonant clusters

More Examples?

get some exercise
Get Some Exercise
  • What phonetic processes are evident in the pronunciation of a 2 yr old below?
    • pocket [bαt]
    • spoon [bun]
    • zoo [du]
    • bath [bæt]
    • grandma [gαgα]

What might we hear for:

    • juice
    • under

From Previous Slide:

  • Substituted segment
  • Deleted syllables
  • Deleted final consonant
  • Reduced consonant clusters
kidspeak16
KidSpeak…

Linguistically Realistic?

foundations
Foundations
  • Innate grammar
  • Methods
    • Naturalistic
      • We’re taking the video anyway…
      • Longitudinal
    • Experimental
      • Focused on a point
      • Cross-sectional
wug test
Wug Test
  • One Wug Two _____
get some exercise 2
Get Some Exercise (2)
  • One Naturalistic study found only 12 of 60 children used a passive structure.
    • Does this mean the other 48 had not yet acquired the passive structure?
    • How does this example reflect on the “pros & cons” of the Naturalistic approach?
  • Other Pros/Cons to Naturalistic/Behavioral Approaches?
any questions20

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

slide21

“Gina is by lingual… that means she can say the same thing twice, but you can only understand it once.”

comparing fla sla
FLA

Blank slate

Intensive input

Adaptability

Reduced cognition

Less experience

SLA

Competition

Peripheral input

Less flexible

Expanded cognition

More Experience

Comparing FLA & SLA
motivation matters
Motivation Matters
  • Instrumental
    • Goal oriented
  • Integrative
    • Community based
whaddya think
Whaddya Think?
  • Acquiring a second language involves both knowing something about the language and being able to do something with the language.
  • Do you think that knowledge and skills are related?
  • What trade-offs can you see between accuracy and fluency?
competence performance
Competence & Performance

L2

L1

Interlanguage

interlanguage
Interlanguage
  • Transference
    • L1 competence in L2 performance
      • Pre-nominal ADJs in Spanish of English native
      • “e” b/4 initial ‘sk’ in English of Spanish native
  • Fossilization
    • Interlanguage ‘errors’ become ‘rules’
fossilization

Bilingualproduction

L2

L1

L1

Persistent Errors

Fossilization
will i they ever get it
Will I/they Ever Get It?
  • Age
    • Critical Period Hypothesis
  • Idiosyncrasies
    • Affective issues
      • cf. Krashen’s Filter
    • Cognitive issues
      • Positive (Direct) Evidence
      • Negative (Indirect) Evidence
  • Learning environment
fossilization whaddya think
Fossilization: Whaddya think?
  • What factors can you think of that might influence fossilization?
  • Do you think some people are more likely to fossilize than others?
    • Why or Why not?
  • Do you think it can be reversed?
    • If so, what strategies might be effective?
slide30
Whenever we speak…

Language Strategic Competence Competence

Organizational Pragmatic

Competence Competence

Grammatical Textual Illocutionary Sociolinguistic

Competence Competence Competence Competence

Vocabulary Cohesion Rhetorical Dialect Cultural

Organization References

Syntax Register

Morphology

Functional

Phonology Abilities

Typical ESL Instruction

interlanguage phonology
Interlanguage Phonology
  • Markedness Differential Hypothesis
    • Linguistic universals
    • ~ If it’s uncommon, it’ll be harder to acquire
  • Similarity Differential Rate Hypothesis
    • Similarity breeds confusion…
  • Syllabification
    • Once a syllable, always a syllable…
    • A stressful situation
exercise
Exercise
  • A dialect of Arabic breaks up clusters by inserting an epenthetic vowel in front of an unsyllabified consonant. How would a speaker of this dialect pronounce the following words? plant transport translate
exercise some more
Exercise (some more)
  • Given what you know about implicational universals, do you think it would be easier for an English speaker to acquire French nasal vowels (e.g. gant [gã] ‘glove’) or for a French speaker to acquire English oral vowels?
interlanguage syntax
Interlanguage Syntax
  • L1 Merge & Move Rules
    • Null Subject
    • Verb Movement
  • Markedness & Subsets
exercise again
Exercise (again)
  • What explanation would you give for a native speaker of French who produced the English sentence ‘I drink frequently coffee’ ?
  • How could you explain to this person that ‘He is frequently late’ is grammatical?
  • Do any other English verbs have the same properties as BE ?
interlanguage morphology
L1 Acquisition

-ing

plural –s

irregular past

possessive -’s

copula (main verb)BE

articles the, a, an

regular past -ed

3rd pers. sing. -s

auxillary BE

L2 Acquisition

-ing

copula (main verb)BE

articles the, a

auxillary BE

plural -s

irregular past

regular past -ed

3rd pers. sing. –s

possessive -’s

Interlanguage Morphology
morphology exercise
Morphology Exercise
  • Second language learners, regardless of their first language, produce forms like goed, sheeps, and could decided even though they never hear these from a native speaker. Why?
  • What are some other forms you might expect to hear?
in the classroom
In the Classroom
  • Modified Input
    • Teacher talk ( i +1)
  • Modified Interaction
    • Discourse differences
  • Focus on Form
    • Explicit Language Instruction
    • Error Correction
    • Self-monitoring & correction
bilingual education
Bilingual Education
  • Almost 10% of school kids = ESoL
    • Bilingual Education
    • English-Only ESL
    • Newcomer Programs
    • Heritage Language Programs
  • Over 500% increase
    • ESoL kids in SC from 1994 - 2004
education whaddya think
Education: Whaddya think?
  • Roughly 75% of all non-native speakers of English in K-12 schools will drop out by or before the 10th grade.
  • What SLA issues share in this issue?
  • What can we do about it?