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Mindfulness Practices. Richard E. Berger, MD University of Washington. A Definition of ‘Mindfulness’. A way of paying moment-to-moment attention on purpose to present experience with a stance of curiosity and non-judgment, that cultivates insight and wholesome mental states.

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Mindfulness practices

Mindfulness Practices

Richard E. Berger, MD

University of Washington


A definition of mindfulness
A Definition of ‘Mindfulness’

  • A way of paying moment-to-moment attention on purpose to present experience with a stance of curiosity and non-judgment, that cultivates insight and wholesome mental states.


Dr jon kabat zinn
Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn

  • “Mindfulness is about being fully awake in our lives. It’s about perceiving the exquisite vividness of each moment. We feel more alive. We also gain immediate access to our own powerful inner resources for insight, transformation, and healing.”



NOW!

Past

Present

Reality

Future


Mindfulness paying attention to the present moment on purpose openly without judgment

Mindfulness: Paying attention to the present moment on purpose openly without judgment.

Present

Past

Future


Distance from reality
Distance from Reality purpose openly without judgment.

You don’t have to believe everything you think!

Stories

Thoughts

Sensation


Denial purpose openly without judgment.

Mindfulness is paying attention on purpose

to whatever is happening with an open and

curious attitude.


Mindfulness
Mindfulness purpose openly without judgment.

Attention

Sustained focus Flexible focus

Intention

self-regulation

self-exploration

self-liberation

Attitude

accepting

open

kind

curious

non-believing


SIT purpose openly without judgment.


Do you know where your mind is right now
Do You Know Where Your Mind Is Right Now? purpose openly without judgment.

  • UC Santa Barbara mind researcher Jonathan Schooler studied awareness of mind wandering in two projects

  • STUDY #1: subjects read War & Peace for 45”, self reporting their awareness of mind wandering

  • Subjects reported an average of 5.4 episodes of noticing mind wandering


Schooler study 2
Schooler purpose openly without judgment. Study #2

  • STUDY #2 included the same reading material for 45” but introduced random questioning from researchers about whether the subjects were on- or off-topic

  • RESULTS: subjects were off-topic on average 43 times in 45”

  • Significance: most subjects were unaware of how often their minds wandered


A wandering mind is an unhappy mind
A Wandering Mind Is purpose openly without judgment.An Unhappy Mind

  • Harvard researchers Killingsworth and Gilbert used a novel iPhone app to randomly contact over 2000 subjects during the day to ask three questions:

    • 1: How are you feeling right now?

    • 2: What are you doing right now?

    • 3: Are you thinking about something other than what you are currently doing?


Results
Results: purpose openly without judgment.

  • 46% of all samples indicated mind wandering

  • People were less happy when their mind wandered than when they were focused on a task

  • Even when their minds wandered to pleasant topics they were no happier than when focused on a task

  • Possible Conclusion: if what we think about effects our happiness, shouldn’t we be more aware of our patterns of thought?


MBSR purpose openly without judgment.

  • 8 weeks of class

  • One all day silent class

  • Sitting meditation

  • Walking meditation

  • Body awareness practice

  • Mindful movement

  • Inquiry and examination of experience


Start easy and practice
Start Easy and Practice purpose openly without judgment.

ms

Meditation

Real life


What are relationships
What are relationships? purpose openly without judgment.


I am controlled by experience
I am controlled by experience purpose openly without judgment.

=


I observe my experience
I Observe My Experience purpose openly without judgment.

Observe


What are relationships1
What are relationships? purpose openly without judgment.

Awareness


What gives you stress

What gives you stress? purpose openly without judgment.

Hint: It may not be outside of you.


You don t have to believe everything you think

You don’t have to believe everything you think! purpose openly without judgment.

You can learn to see your thoughts and indeed your sense of self as just another object of your awareness.


Physiological consequences of stress driven by catecholamines and cortisol
Physiological consequences of stress driven by catecholamines and cortisol

é heart rate

é blood pressure

é blood flow to muscles

ê blood flow to skin

é metabolic rate

ê digestion

é blood clotting and

thickness

é blood sugar

é respiratory rate

é fluid retention

é alertness

é breakdown of fats

  • triglycerides and LDL cholesterol

(c) Lipsenthal 2011


Effects mindful practices

weight catecholamines and cortisol

blood sugar

bp

Improved lipid profile

cortisone

inflammation

Improved well-being, alertness

pain with stress

 brain size, grey matter

 quality of life

 concentration

 learning

 sleep quality

 body awareness

depression

Changes DNA activation

Burnout

Effects Mindful Practices

NIH conference 2009 Mind/Body Med.


MEDITATION IS THE FORMAL PRACTICE catecholamines and cortisol

OF MINDFULNESS


Effect mbsr on grey matter
Effect MBSR On Grey Matter catecholamines and cortisol

Lazar et al. Neuroreport. 2005 November 28; 16(17): 1893–1897.


Brain changes with short term mindfulness practice
Brain Changes with Short Term Mindfulness Practice catecholamines and cortisol

  • Increased Prefrontal Cortex size

  • Increased white matter efficiency in Anterior Cingular Gyrus

  • Right becomes Left Amygdala predominance

  • Increased size insula

  • Increased hippocampus size and activity

  • Executive Function

  • Self-regulation

  • Positive emotional outlook

  • Perception, self-awareness, cognition

  • Memory

Posner and Tang 2012


Emotional response to negative self beliefs
Emotional Response to Negative Self-Beliefs catecholamines and cortisol

Golden et al, Emotion 2009


Mindfulness training and memory
Mindfulness Training and Memory catecholamines and cortisol

Jha et al, Emotion 2010


Mindfulness sat and wmc
Mindfulness, SAT and WMC catecholamines and cortisol

Mrazek et al 2013


Mindfulness training and academics
Mindfulness Training and Academics catecholamines and cortisol

  • Improves WMC (Working Memory Capacity during stress

  • Enhances attention

  • Improves visuospatial processing efficiency

  • Increases backwards digit memory span

  • Improves test taking (SAT)

Mrazek et al 2013


Loving kindness meditation and emotional state
Loving Kindness Meditation and Emotional State catecholamines and cortisol

Fredrickson et al, J Person and Soc Psych, 95(5), 1045, 2008


Loving kindness meditation
Loving Kindness Meditation catecholamines and cortisol

Compared with a closely matched control task, even just a few minutes of loving-kindness meditation increased feelings of social connection and positivity toward novel individuals on both explicit and implicit levels. These results suggest that this easily implemented technique may help to increase positive social emotions and decrease social isolation.

Hutcherson et al, Emotion. 8(5), 2008

Fredrickson et al, J Person and Soc Psych, 95(5), 1045, 2008


Mindfulness v phys exercise

Need faith to start catecholamines and cortisol

Need 6-8 weeks to see results

Hardest in the beginning

Gets more enjoyable with time

Takes 2 weeks to establish habit

Lifelong benefits

Need faith to start

Need 6-8 weeks to see results

Hardest in the beginning

Gets more enjoyable with time

Takes 2 weeks to establish habit

Lifelong benefits

Mindfulness v Phys. Exercise


I have had an interesting life

I have had an interesting life. catecholamines and cortisol

I wish I had been present for more of it.


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