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Pakistan Affairs & Islamiyat (in the light of Islam). Lecture# 1. TABLE OF CONTENTS. 1.Expansion of Islam in the Sub-continent 2.Choronological order of Dynasties and Mughal emperor 3.Causes of the decline of Great Muslim Empire. Islam Spread in the Sub-Continent. 1. Indians before Islam

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.Expansion of Islam in the Sub-continent2.Choronological order of Dynasties and Mughal emperor3.Causes of the decline of Great Muslim Empire

islam spread in the sub continent
Islam Spread in the Sub-Continent

1. Indians before Islam

  • Arab traders relation with Indians Trade of horses, spices, and silk
  • Setup trade colonies on the coastal areas of west India
  • Many Indians accepted Islam to be closer to Arab Traders

2. Different Religions in India

  • Before Islam, three religions existed namely; Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism
  • Islam spread out in India and shook the whole foundation of caste-ridden Hinduism
  • Islam preached equality of human beings and worship of one GOD instead of thousands Gods
islam spread in the sub continent1
Islam Spread in the Sub-Continent

3. Expeditions to India

  • After the death of Holy Prophet (PBUH) many expeditions were sent towards sub-continet
  • First Expedition was sent by Hazrat Umar towards small port near Mombay
  • Makran the coastal area of Balochistan was conquered under the reign of HazratUsman
  • Hazrat Ali also sent expeditions respectively

4. The most Important Expedition

  • Ruler of Sri Lanka sent gifts to eastern Ruler Hajjaj Bin Yousaf
  • These ships were attacked and looted by some pirates
  • Incident took place under the reign of Indian ruler Raja Dahir
islam spread in the sub continent2
Islam Spread in the Sub-Continent

5. Muhammad Bin Qasim’s Attack on Sindh

  • He was helped by lower castes Hindus and also by the followers of Jainism because they were under great oppression of Raja Dahir
  • He conquered the whole Sindh and Multan

6. Effects of Conquest

  • The conquest had political, social, cultural, and religious effects
  • Islamic Principles of Tauheed, Equality, and Fraternity allured a lot of non-Muslims to Islam
  • They felt themselves as human beings and Islam increased their social status
islam spread in the sub continent3
Islam Spread in the Sub-Continent

7. Intellectual & Cultural Contacts of Muslims & Hindus

  • Hindus learnt art of trade, art of navigation, the art of dressing and eating
  • Arabs learnt numerals and knowledge of Astrology
  • Missionary traders and sailors went to far East and spread Islam in Malaya and Indonesia
  • Due to weak Abbasaid’s government and moral bankruptcy of Arab Muslims Arabi rule was restricted

8. MahmoodGhavnavi’s Invasion

  • Turk entered India through Khyber Pass
  • He invaded India many a times from 1001 to 1027 AD
  • His intentions were to consolidate his power in central Asia not to spread Islam
islam spread in the sub continent4
Islam Spread in the Sub-Continent
  • Ghaznavids ruled India from 976 to 1148 AD
  • Ghauris ruled from 1148 to 1206 AD
  • From 1206 to 1526 five different dynasties which included
    • Slave Dynasty
    • Khiliji
    • Taghluq
    • Lodhi, and
    • Syed Dynasty
  • After them Mughal came into power
islam spread in the sub continent5
Islam Spread in the Sub-Continent

9. MughalRule in India

  • Mughal ruled India from 1526 to 1707, though they rule nominally till 1857
  • Era of glory for the Muslims
  • Muslims flourished in every field i.e. culturally, intellectually, economically, and socially
  • Mughal were considered the great Muslim rulers, though Akbar found trying to mar the true spirit of Islam
  • Efforts of Muslim Scholars like HazratMujadad Alf Sani and Shah Waliullah saved it
islam spread in the sub continent6
Islam Spread in the Sub-Continent

10. Effects of Islam on Sub-Continent

  • Islam completely changed the living and thinking of the people of sub-continent
  • Turks introduced Persian which while mingling with Arabia and gave birth a new language URDU
  • This language later became an identity of the Muslims

11. Emergence of Pakistan

  • From 1857, the war of independence till 1947, the British Ruled India as their colony
  • On the 14th August, 1947 Pakistan emerged on the map of the world as an independent Muslim State with the slogan of Two Nation Theory
causes of the decline of great muslim empire
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

1. Weak Successors of Aurangzeb

  • After his death, his weak and incapable successors had not stamina of holding his vast empire
  • War amongst his sons and grandsons for acquiring the throne
  • After 1707 AD, Mughal rulers indulged in luxury and indolence/lethargic
  • The rulers like Muhammad Shah Rangila loved dancing and singing then affairs of empire

2. Weak Central Government

  • Strong central Government is backbone of any empire/Sultanate
  • Muslim rulers lost their control on the central government and Marathas of Deccan, Sikhs of Punjab and Jats of Agra and Delhi exploited the situation
  • They setup several independent states
causes of the decline of great muslim empire1
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

3. No rule for Succession

  • Mughals had not set rule for succession
  • Ruler died many royal princes appeared to claim for the right
  • The victorious prince slay his opponents and succeed to the throne
  • Many experience generals were slain
  • The succession war took place among the sons of Shah Jehan caused a great damage to the good-will of the Mughal Dynasty.

4. Lack of Resources

  • Weakness of Mughal Rulers: the provinces of Bengal, Gujrat, Deccan and Oudh became autonomous and independent
  • As a result, the financial resources of the government became less and treasury became empty
  • Emperors were the pensioners of British administration.
  • Couldn’t manage to hire army for defense
  • Worsening conditions of economy became the cause of decline
causes of the decline of great muslim empire2
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

5. Backward in Education

  • Education system completely depended on the religious institutions
  • Emperors neither cooperated with conquerors nor did they want to learn English language which was the fate way to modern sciences
  • This backwardness shamelessly affected their economy and political life
  • As a results Hindu occupied high positions in government and left the Muslim behind in every walk of life.

6. Luxurious Life

  • Wealth and prolonging of the Mughal rule made the Mughal princes fond of luxurious life
  • At royal court, the jesters and musicians were preferred to the brave and the warrior soldiers.
  • All others choose the same course as they saw likewise getting more respect and honour
causes of the decline of great muslim empire3
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

7. Undue Liberal Policy of Akbar

  • He setup an effective administration in his vast empire
  • He was so liberal that he married Hindu women and appointed Hindu on key posts
  • Hindu became influential and they began exercise their powers in state affairs.
  • He introduced a new religion Deen-i-Illahiwhich led him to take such measures as were against the tenets of Islamic faith
  • This policy caused a great harm to his vast empire and led it on the way to decline
causes of the decline of great muslim empire4
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

8. Deen-i-Illahi

  • Combining features of Hinduism and Islam
  • All religions would be united in a way that the advantage of all the religions would be gained and that the evils of all the religions would be disregarded
  • Akbar sanctioned a number of un-Islamic practices which included the worship of sun, fire and artificial lights
  • It was required to bow before the emperor in adoration/respect
  • Cow slaughtered was prohibited and Azan call for prayers was forbidden
  • The mosques were to be used as warehouse
  • He ordered that no child will be named as Muhammad in future
  • The immediate result of the promulgation of Deen-i-illahi was the loss of Muslim political hegemony in the Indian Society
  • Hindus were elevated to the equal status and their social position was greatly enhanced
  • Akbar’s experiment in the religious field gained nothing other than hatred and vigorous reaction by the Muslim saints Mujadid Alf Saniwho exposed the fallacy of Deen-i-Illahi
causes of the decline of great muslim empire5
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

9. Weak Military force

  • Did not give importance to develop modern weapons and latest techniques of warfare
  • Soldiers were dependent on arrows and lances which were not enough to face challenges
  • Generals hardly went into the battle field and European nation took advantage of the weakness of Muslim army and took possession

10. Lack of Naval Power

  • They had no naval force to defend themselves from European countries
  • They easily conquered the coastal areas with the force of navy
  • The pilgrims had to take permission from the Portuguese before proceeding for pilgrimage.
causes of the decline of great muslim empire6
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

11. Foreign Invasions

  • The massacre carried out by invaders (Nadir Shah & Ahmed Shah Abdali) shattered the economy of the country and Mughal Empire altogether lost his dignity.
  • Marathas also paralyzed even the remaining powers of Mughal

12. Internal Conspiracies

  • The incompetent successors of Aurangzeb made the Royal court an area of conspiracies
  • Jealousy and Hypocrisy ruled the country
  • The nobles quarreled among themselves for power
  • Such state affairs turned the country too weak to survive
causes of the decline of great muslim empire7
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

13. Loss of Spirit of Jehad

  • The spirit of Jehad has always been the main spring of Islamic Government
  • The local recruiters loved the life of ease and Mughal princes were indulged in luxuries
  • Life and the army had become indolent/lazy
  • This factor faded/weakened the Muslim army and was no longer to defend the country

14. Disloyalty to Nation

  • No shortages of persons who didn’t hesitate to put the nation at stake for their vested interests
  • Meer Jaffar and Meer Sadiqwere notorious for their treacherous character they played in the politics of sub-continent
  • They showed disloyalty to their own nation and in turn suffered disgrace even at the hands of Britisher
causes of the decline of great muslim empire8
Causes of the Decline of great Muslim Empire

15. Foreign Intrigues/conspiracies

  • The English took full advantage of internal anarchy/disorder
  • They conspired with Meer Jaffar and became the masters of Bengal
  • In maysore, they won over Meer Sadiq to betray Tipu Sultan
  • They used their advanced military power as well as intriguing/alluring tricks to weaken the Muslim Government and succeeded in their imperialistic designs
  • After the failure of the independence war (1857), they put an end to the Muslim rule and brought the whole continent under their possession.
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