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DROPBOX ISLAM HW #2 V-SHARE. 1. ISLAM NOTES #2. Islam Notes Part 2. I. Islam Schism. A. Muhammad’s Death (632 AD)

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i islam schism
I. Islam Schism

A. Muhammad’s Death (632 AD)

1. Muhammad’s death was so sudden that he left no instructions on who was to be his successor. As a result his death plunged the religion into turmoil.

2. A dispute broke out among Muslims over who should be the Caliph.

a. Caliph – “Successor to the Prophet”

3. Some Muslims wanted Ali because he was related to Muhammad, while other Muslims wanted Abu Bakr because he was an early follower of Muhammad.

i islam schism1
I. Islam Schism

B. Early Caliphs

1. Abu Bakr (632-634 AD)

a. Muhammad’s oldest friend and one of his earliest converts.

2. Umar (634-656 AD)

a. Was a strong leader with a well-run government

b. Conquered Jerusalem in 638 AD

c. Muslim Empire expanded to include Syria, Persia, North Africa, and eventually parts of the ByzantineEmpire.

i islam schism2
I. Islam Schism

C. Conflict

1. In 656 AD, Umar was assassinated.

2. Ali, passed over twenty years earlier, was chosen Caliph in 658 AD.

i islam schism3
I. Islam Schism

C. Conflict

3. A dispute broke out over who should be Caliph.

a. Sunni Muslims

1. Caliphs could be chosen by election “Rightly Guided Muslim.”

2. Combined religious and political goals in order to build and administer an empire.

3. Sunnis control Iraq and Saudi Arabia.

i islam schism4
I. Islam Schism

C. Conflict

3. A dispute broke out over who should be Caliph.

b. Shiite Muslims

1. Caliphs must be of the family of Muhammad.

2. A “divine spark” of wisdom is transmitted through Muhammad’s family. Leaders who possess this divine spark are called imams.

3. Shiites are dominant in Iran.

i islam schism5
I. Islam Schism

C. Conflict

4. Civil War broke out between the Sunni Muslim leader Mu’awiyah and the Shiite Muslim leader Ali.

5. Ali is killed in 661 AD and the Muslim capital is moved from Mecca to Damascusin Syria.

6. Today, 90% of Muslims are Sunni.

ii muslim empires
II. Muslim Empires

A. Umayyad Caliphate (Dominion or Empire of the Successor)

1. Capital in Damascus and lasted about 100 years

(661 AD-750 AD).

2. Under the leadership of Mu’awiyah the Islamic religion spreads.

a. Muslim armies secure the Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Persia, India, and North Africa.

ii muslim empires1
II. Muslim Empires

A. Umayyad Caliphate (Dominion or Empire of the Successor)

ii muslim empires2
II. Muslim Empires

A. Umayyad Caliphate (Dominion or Empire of the Successor)

b. In 711 AD a Muslim army conquers Spain.

c. In 732 AD, Muslim expansion into Europe was ended when a French under the command of Charles “ The Hammer” Martel defeat a Muslim army at the Battle of Tours in France.

ii muslim empires3
II. Muslim Empires

B. Abbasid Caliphate

1. Shiites help overthrow the Umayyads in 750 AD.

2. Abbasid dynasty controlled Islamic world from 750 AD to 1258 AD.

ii muslim empires4
II. Muslim Empires

B. Abbasid Caliphate

3. Capital moved from Damascus to Baghdad(In Iraq).

4. Muslims enjoyed a “Golden Age” in arts and

sciences during this period.

iii geographic influences 622 ad 1258 ad
III. Geographic Influences (622 AD-1258 AD)

A. Political unity of the first Muslim empire was short-lived.

1. Medina Compact – signed by the major Arabic tribes in 630 A.D.

a. Creates first Islamic state on the Arabian Peninsula.

  • Arabic language spreads with Islam and facilitated trade

across Islamic lands.

هيغ سكول

iii geographic influences 622 ad 1258 ad1
III. Geographic Influences (622 AD-1258 AD)

C. Islam spread along trade routes between Mecca and

Medina.

1. Expanded great distances despite the desert environment and mountain barriers.

2. Would eventually spread into the Fertile Crescent and Central Asia because of the weak Byzantine and Persian Empires.

D. Slavery was not based on race.

hw define database terms for quiz
HW: Define Database Terms for Quiz

1. Muhammad

2. Angel Gabriel

3. Mecca

4. Hegira

5. Allah

6. Islam

7. Qur’an (Koran)

8. Five Pillars of Islam

9. Ramadan

10. Hajj

11. Mosque

12. Caliph

13. Sunni

14. Shiite

15. Battle of Tours