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The stomach and beyond

The stomach and beyond

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The stomach and beyond

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  1. The stomach and beyond Digestion part 2

  2. The stomach • Smooth muscles mix food (3-5 hours) • Acid secretion denatures food • Digestive enzymes begin to digest protein • (fat, carbohydrate to lesser extent) • Chyme is formed (food is liquefied); highly acidic

  3. Very little absorption takes place • Water, electrolytes, aspirin, alcohol • Produces “intrinsic factor’ necessary for vitaminB12 absorption

  4. Secretory structures of the stomach • Cells in mucosa secrete: • Acid (parietal cells) • Mucus (goblet cells) • Pepsinogen (chief cells) • hormones (G and D cells)

  5. Accessory organs: pancreas • Secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine • Pancreatic juice: amylase, trypsin, lipase, etc. • Secreted by acini (99% of pancreatic cells) • Remaining 1% form islets of Langerhans and secrete insulin and glucagon

  6. Liver and gall bladder

  7. Diverse functions of liver • Formation and secretion of bile • Metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins • Formation of plasma proteins • Detoxification of blood • Storage of vitamins and minerals • Clearance of aged cells

  8. Small intestine organization

  9. Small intestine receives and produces secretions • From pancreas and liver/gall bladder • Digestive enzymes • Brush-border enzymes • Crypts of Lieberkühn • Mucus • Goblet cells • Hormones • Immune function • Paneth cells

  10. Large intestine • Compaction of solid waste • Bacterial breakdown of proteins; vitamin formation • Absorption of water, ions, vitamins • Defecation

  11. Applications to health • Peptic ulcer- craterlike lesion caused by exposure to gastric juices. • Vomiting- forcible expulsion of the contents of the upper GI tract (stomach and duodenum). • Peritonitis- acute inflammation of the peritoneum. • Hepatitis- inflammation of the liver caused by viruses, drugs, or chemicals. • Gallstones- crystallization of cholesterol due to insufficient bile salts. • Appendicitis- inflammation of the appendix caused by an obstruction of the lumen.