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Hybrid Buses. Alterno- starter. Battery mode. Serial. In Line parallel. Rear axle Hybridization. Two modes hybrid. A great variety of solutions Compatible with every fuel: diesel- CNG -biofuels Unsure results: from +20% to -25% fuel & CO2 Some disadvantages:

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Electric Engine


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slide2

Hybrid Buses

Alterno- starter

Battery mode

Serial

In Line parallel

Rear axle Hybridization

Two modes hybrid

  • A great variety of solutions
  • Compatible with every fuel: diesel- CNG -biofuels
  • Unsure results: from +20% to -25% fuel & CO2
  • Some disadvantages:
      • Weight +1 ton => less passenger capacity
      • Reliability?
      • Safety?
      • Price, payback, maintenance?

Electric Engine

Batteries

Generator

hybrid buses state of the art
Hybrid buses : state of the art
  • Context: CO2 4 factor in 2050
  • US Hybrid sales : 2,2% of car sales (07/07)
  • 1500 US Hybrid buses (3% fleet)

2 technologies :

-serial

-mixed hybrid

Overcost ≈ 100 to 150 000$

Federal Funding 80%

  • Iveco Irisbus: 14 years of experience

Compro

the irisbus iveco experience
The Irisbus Iveco experience
  • More than 120 hybrid buses sold since 14 years (de 6 to 12m)

London UK

Exeter UK

Lucca Ital

Palermo Ital

Aosta Ital

Como Ital

Trento Ital

Siviglia Esp

Chieti Ital

Biella Ital

Citavecchia Ital

Campobasso Ital

Savona Ital

Valencia Esp

Torino Ital

Genova Ital

Terni Ital

Ferrara Ital

Roma Ital

Genova Ital

Parma Ital

Ferrare Ital

Reggio Calabre Ital

Napoli Ital

Compro

the irisbus iveco experience1
The Irisbus Iveco experience
  • Main functionalities :
  • Full electric mode in the city centers
  • Diesel mode outside of city center
  • Flexibility
  • Fuel consumption/noise/emissions

Compro

serial hybrid

GB converter

Aérodynamics

3%

3%

Tyres

15%

Kinetic energy

43%

Idle

8%

Auxiliaries

22%

Transmission

6%

Serial hybrid
  • High power electronics : 160 to 230 kW
  • Long chain efficiency :
    • Lower drivetrain direct efficiency
  • Very high braking energy recovery
  • Possible optimization of engine working points

through downsizing

Compro

mix hybrid

GB converter

Aérodynamics

3%

3%

Tyres

15%

Kinetic energy

43%

Idle

90 %

90 %

8%

96%

Auxiliaries

22%

Transmission

6%

Mix hybrid
  • 2 electric engines
  • More adapted to higher velocities (optimization of engine working points).
  • Requires a specific GB
  • stop/start not systematic.

85 %

50 %

98%

Storage restitution conversion < 70%

90 %

98%

85 %

auxiliaries

85 %

72 %

Not systematic

Compro

parallel hybrid

GB converter

Aérodynamics

3%

3%

Tyres

15%

Kinetic energy

43%

Idle

8%

96%

Auxiliaries

22%

Transmission

6%

Parallel Hybrid
  • Example Irisbus Ecodriver
  • Lower power electronics (80kW on a 12m)
  • Lean braking energy recovery
  • Stop start
  • Still uses a mechanical GB
  • => High direct efficiency

GB

94%

Storage

restitution

90 %

90 %

conversion

85 %

70% Batt

94%

auxiliaries

90 %

90 %

85 %

Compro

the hydraulic hybrid
The hydraulic hybrid

Caution: hybridization is not systematically made through electricity.

Serial and paralell hydraulic hybrid concepts do exist.

Compro

how to measure fuel consumption of hybrids
How to measure fuel consumption of hybrids?

Sort is not a valid cycle for hybrids

With SORT consumption reduction is very overestimated

- decelerations are too important

- braking energy recovery is overestimated

=> Better rely on real usage test cycles

Compro

synthesis
Synthesis

450

400

350

300

W Fuel

250

%

W Mecanical

W Wheel

200

150

100

50

0

Mixed Hybrid

Conventional

Paralell Hybrid

Serial Hybrid

Source VDV

Compro

energy storage
Energy storage

Energy storage possibilities

super cap batteries hydraulic

Super cap

Ŋ=90%

400 kg

50$/kW

Cooling by venting

Hydraulic

Accumulator

Ŋ=90%

400kg

No cooling necessary

Li-ion

Ŋ=85%

500kg

70$/kW

Cooling by venting

NiMH

Ŋ=80%

850kg

50$/kW

Cooling by venting

Lead

Ŋ=70%

1500kg

10$/kW

Cooling by

refrigeration

Weight => Capacity Cost Security Reliability

Compro

curb weight and capacity a key factor

250

200

150

100

CO2 g/km/ passenger

50

0

306 Hdi

Bravo JTD

Golf Tdi 115

Mégane DTI

Astra 2.0 DTI

Mégane Dci

406 essence

Bus EEV 20 p

Bus EEV 75 p

Bus Hybride 20p

Scenic essence

Average car

Curb weight and capacity: a key factor
  • Buses: already a low CO2 transport mode.
  • 2 to 3 times more efficient than a car
  • Thanks to its massification effect
  • Because of its high capacity

Picture

UITP

Compro

bus hybrids and co2
Bus Hybrids and CO2

France 2004-2006 Passenger.Km

Source: Commission des Comptes des Transports de la Nation

  • CO2 Potential N°1: Modal shift
  • CO2 Potential N°2: Hybrids

Never forget that:

- buses are already a solution to CO2

- the best environmental service a bus technology can provide is to help gaining modal share

- operational cost

- reliability

- capacity

Cars

82,9%

Bus &

Coach

5,1%

Rail Transport

10,5%

Air Transport

1,5%

Compro

slide18

Conclusion

  • A great variety of technologies and unsure results
      • technologically neutral
          • => electric
          • => hydraulic
      • 100% result oriented (environmental performance)
          • => external costs?
  • SORT is not adapted
          • => evaluation on real usage test cycles
  • Life cycle cost analysis is necessary
  • Capacity is a key factor
  • => performance and cost analyzed per passenger