Computers have had a profound impact on. - automatic control - automation - manufacturing Other uses: - mathematical modeling - simulation. Changing Manufacturing Requirements. and Green: new addition for 21 st Century. Feedback Control Is Basic Building Block (Since 1950s).
- automatic control
- mathematical modeling
Green: new addition for 21st Century
1957 – Sputnik launching
USSR/USA competition in control technology
(Maximum vs. Minimum Principle)
Average Storage Add Read
Monthly Capacity Time Cards
Rental (in 1000 (Micro- Per
(1960 $)bits) sec)Min
IBM-7090 55,000 160 0.004 250
CDC-1604 34,000 32 0.005 1300
DEC-PDP1 2,200 4 0.010 (Tape
rather than frequency response but model accuracy is a requirement
One technique for obtaining a feedback controller synthesis from knowledge of open-loop controllers is to measure the current control process state and then compute very rapidly for the open-loop control function. The first portion of this function is then used during a short time interval, after which a new measurement of the process state is made and a new open-loop control function is computed for this new measurement. The procedure is then repeated.
Lee and Markus (1967)
Foundation of Optimal Control Theory
manufacturing. Time scales are shown for each level.
Reboiler duty fixed
- Dynamic models will need to be run at
50-500 times real time to meet application objectives.
- B.S. engineer/operator
- Nonlinear programming
- Self-tuning controllers
- Data reconciliation, filtering
- Artificial intelligence