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Introduction to Health y Communication. Dr. Muharrem AK İnönü University Faculty of Medicine Department of Family Medicine

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introduction to health y communication

Introduction to HealthyCommunication

Dr. Muharrem AK

İnönü University Faculty of Medicine

Department of Family Medicine

1948, the World Health Organization defined health as ‘a complete state of physical, mental and social well being’ and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity.Health
  • Feeling vital and full of energy.
  • Experiencing a sense of control over one’s life and living conditions
  • Being able to do things pose in life
  • Experiencing being part of a community
international conference on health communication 1991
International Conference on Health Communication 1991

1. Communication problems in medical practice are important and common.

2. Patient anxiety and dissatisfaction are directly related to uncertainty and lack of information, explanation and feedback which in turn have negative consequences in all cause health related well being.
3. Doctors often misperceive the amount and type of information that patients want to receive.
5. Greater participation by the patient in the encounter improves satisfaction, compliance and treatment outcomes
6. The level of psychological distress in patients with serious illness is less when they perceive themselves to have received adequate information.
7. Beneficial clinical communication is routinely possible in clinical practice and can be achieved during normal clinical encounters, without unduly prolonging them, provided that the clinician has learned the relevant techniques
Before looking at communication between two or more people interpersonal communication it is important to consider communication that occurs solely within ourselves.
the core of self
The core of self
  • This is basically concerned with how we see and value ourselves; our selfimage and personality. Our self-image not only depends on how we see and categorize ourselves, but also, importantly, on how we believe we are seen and categorized by others
our self image composed of
Our self-image composed of

physical attributes

intellectual attributes

social or emotional attributes

self esteem
  • Our self-esteem is a major element of intrapersonal communication, it also affects how we communicate with others. People with high self-esteem, for example, have been noted to talk more firmly and confidently, whereas those with low esteem are more cautious.
needs and motivations
Needs and motivations
  • The second element involves the needs and motivations which drive the self to generate communications or interpret communications, and to change the way it presents itself in different sorts of interaction.
  • The internal activities by which we make sense of the world.
  • The way in which we generate and interpret communications will depend on our prior knowledge, experiences and values that we hold.
cognitive processes in intrapersonal communication
Cognitive processes in intrapersonal Communication
  • Decoding interpreting communications from others), integration (relating these to other information)
4. Encoding (i.e. composing communications to transmit to others). Each of these will be affected by our past
monitoring the reactions of others
Monitoring the reactions of others
  • We constantly obtain and check reactions from others in order to see what effect we are having on them, and to adjust future behaviour if appropriate. This involves monitoring both their verbal and non-verbal behaviours.
social leakage
Social leakage
  • Influential source of feedback, as non-verbal communication tends to be more automatic and less open to control by others
  • People may say one thing verbally but their body language or facial expression may portray a different picture
‘The process by which information, meanings,and feelings are shared by persons through the exchange of verbal

and non-verbal messages’

The most common type of interpersonal communication is face-to-face interaction

between two or more people. Such interactions typically comprise a basic forms of communication sequence of events and behaviours

3. The medium or the particular means of conveying the message, with the three main types being presentational (e.g. voice, body), representational (e.g. books, photos) and technological (e.g. television). The first is pivotal in interpersonal communication
4. The channel (i.e. what connects the communicators and accommodates the medium; e.g. vocal–auditory, gestural–visual).
6. Noise (this is not just mere sounds but includes any interference with the success of the communicative act).
1. Competency performance is a process which involves formulating goals and action plans, implementing these plans, monitoring the effects of behaviour, adjusting and abandoning goals and responses in the light of outcomes, and taking cognizance of other people and the context in which the interaction occurs.
5. Competency are defined in terms of identifiable units of behaviour. Skill is reflected in the performance of communicative behaviours.
Philip Ley (1979), asserted that patients forget around 50 percent of what they are told,
  • Patients remember the vast majority of the ‘important’ information they are told. Ley (1988) repeated the 50 per cent memory loss claim, and also asserted that medical information was not well understood
understanding patients
Understanding Patients
  • Health motivation:

People vary in their overall interest in health and in their motivation to look after themselves.

  • Perceived vulnerability:

The perceived likelihood of contracting any particular condition.

patients expectations
Patients Expectations
  • Identity: What is it?
  • Timeline: How long will it last?
  • Cause: What caused it?
  • Consequences: How will it/has it affected me?
  • Cure/control: Can it be cured or controlled?
patient satisfaction
Three aspects of physician behaviour:

1. Giving information, particularly about the problem, its significance, and its treatment.

2. Partnership building, for example encouraging the patient to talk and asking for the patient’s ideas and opinions.

3. ‘Positive talk’, expressing agreement, giving encouragement or reassurance, and showing understanding and concern.

Patient satisfaction
  • Textbook of Family Medicine / Ian R. McWhinney,Ian R. Thomas Freeman. 3rd ed.2009 by Oxford University Press.
  • Health Communication Theory and Practice. Dianne Berry 2007. Open University Press.
  • The New Consultation: Developing doctor patient communication David Pendleton.2003 Oxford University Press.