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Signals and Signal Processing. CIS 370 – Lab 5 UMassD. Good Programming. It is always good practice to write several small programs that do specific things and combine them to do a task than write a large monolithic program. Ideally you would like several cooperating processes.

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signals and signal processing

Signals and Signal Processing

CIS 370 – Lab 5

UMassD

good programming
Good Programming
  • It is always good practice to write several small programs that do specific things and combine them to do a task than write a large monolithic program.
  • Ideally you would like several cooperating processes.
  • UNIX provides a rich environment for IPCs - some of these are signals, pipes and FIFOs.
signals
Signals
  • We will focus on signals in this chapter and get to pipes and FIFOs later.
  • Suppose you’re running a UNIX command $cc largeprog.c
  • If the command does not terminate in a reasonable period of time, one typically terminates this by pressing ctrl-c.
  • The command is terminated and the shell prompt returns.
what actually happens
What actually happens?
  • The part of the kernel responsible for the keyboard input sees the interrupt character.
  • The kernel then sends a signal called SIGINT to all the processes that recognize the terminal as their controlling terminal.
  • This includes the invocation of cc.
  • When cc receives the signal, it performs the default action associated with SIGINT and terminates.
what actually happens contined
What actually happens contined
  • The shell process also receives the signal.
  • It sensibly ignores the signal !
  • Programs can elect to “catch” SIGINT.
  • When they catch the signal they execute a special interrupt routine (aka interrupt service routine (ISR)).
signals and the kernel
Signals and the kernel
  • Signals are also used by the kernel to deal with certain kinds of severe error.
  • Suppose a corrupt program containing illegal machine instructions is executed (accidentally or intentionally).
  • A process begins execution of the program.
signal and the kernel
Signal and the kernel
  • The kernel will detect the attempt to execute the illegal instructions and send the process the signal SIGILL (ILL stands for illegal) to terminate it. It may look something like this

$faultyprog

Illegal instruction. Core dumped.

process to process signals
Process to process signals
  • Signals can also be sent between processes.
  • Consider the following:
      • $ gcc verybigprog.c &
      • [1] 1034
      • $ // after a long time
      • $ kill -9 1034
      • 1034 terminated
      • $
    • The command kill sends a SIGTERM signal. SIGTERM will terminate the process.
process response to signals
Process response to signals

A process can do three things with signals:

  • Choose the way it responds when it receives a particular signal (signal handling).
  • Block out signals (that is, leave them for later) for a specific piece of critical code.
  • Send a signal to another process.
signal names
Signal names
  • Signals are given mnemonic names.
  • They are defined in <signal.h>, with the pre-processor directive #define.
  • They stand for small positive integers.
  • Most are intended for the kernel, although a few are provided to be sent from process to process.
signal names1
Signal names
  • SIGABRT - Process abort signal (abnormal termination - core dumped)
  • SIGALRM - Alarm clock (sent by the kernel after timer has expired).
  • SIGBUS - Bus error (sent if a hardware fault is detected - abnormal termination)
  • SIGCHLD - Child process terminated (whenever a child process stops or terminates, the kernels sends this to the parent).
slide12
SIGCONT - Continue executing if stopped (This is a job control signal which will continue if the process is stopped, else ignored, inverse of SIGSTOP)
  • SIGFPE - Floating-point exception (AT).
  • SIGHUP - The hangup signal. (The kernel sends this to all processes attached to a control terminal when the terminal is disconnected - applies to sessions as well).
  • SIGILL - Illegal instruction. (AT)
slide13
SIGKILL - Kill (special signal sent from one process to another to terminate the receiver - cannot be ignored).
  • SIGPIPE - Write on pipe or socket when recipient has terminated. (discussed later).
  • SIGPOLL - Pollable event. (signal is generated by the kernel when an open file descriptor is ready for input or output).
  • SIGPROF - Profiling time expired. (signal is generated when timer expires and can be used by interpreters to profile execution).
slide14
SIGQUIT - Quit. (similar to SIGINT)
  • SIGSEGV - Invalid memory reference. (AT) (segmentation violation, generated when a process attempts to access invalid memory)
  • SIGSTOP - Stop execution. (job control signal, cannot be ignored)
  • SIGSYS - Invalid system call. (AT) (sent by kernel when a process attempts to execute a machine instruction which is not a sys call)
  • SIGTERM - Software termination signal (used to terminate a process)
slide15
SIGTRAP - Trace trap.(AT) (special signal used by debuggers such as sdb and adb, along with ptrace system call).
  • SIGTSTP - Terminal stop signal. (signal generated by the user typing ctrl-z, can be ignored)
  • SIGTTIN - Background process attempting read. (when a bg process attempts to read from the controlling terminal, this signal is sent and the process is typically stopped)
slide16
SIGTTOU - Background process attempting write. (generated when the bg process attempts to write to the controlling terminal)
  • SIGURG - High bandwidth data is available at a socket. (signal tells a process that urgent or out of band data has been received on a network connection)
  • SIGUSR1 and SIGUSR2 - user defined signals
slide17
SIGVTALRM - Virtual timer expired. (sent when user-mode time expires).
  • SIGXCPU - CPU time limit exceeded. (signal generated when the process exceeds its maximum CPU time limit).
  • SIGXFSZ - File size limit exceeded. (AT) (generated when a process exceeds its maximum file size limit)
normal termination
Normal termination
  • For most signals normal termination occurs when a signal is received.
  • The exit status returned to the parent in this circumstance tells the parent what happened
  • There are macros defined in <sys/wait.h> which allow the parent to determine the cause of termination and in this particular case the value of the signal which was responsible.
abnormal termination
Abnormal Termination
  • The signals SIGABRT, SIGBUS, SIGSEGV, SIGQUIT, SIGILL, SIGTRAP, SIGSYS, SIGXCPU, SIGXFSZ and SIGFPE cause abnormal termination - core dumped.
  • The memory dump of the process is written to a file called core.
  • The core file will include the values of the program variables, h/w registers and control information - in binary.
signal handling
Signal Handling
  • Once a signal is received the process may:
    • Take the default action, which is to terminate the process. SIGSTOP will stop the process.
    • Ignore the signal and carry on processing. In case of batch programs signals may be ignored.
    • Take a specified user-defined action. Whenever a program exits, whatever the cause, a programmer might want to perform clean-up operations such as removing work files.
signal sets
Signal sets
  • Signal sets are one of the main parameters passed to system calls that deal with signals
  • They simply specify a list of signals you want to do something with.
  • Signal sets are defined of the type sigset_t
  • You can empty the set, or remove a few, keep only the ones that interest you.
signal sets1
Signal sets
  • Usage

#include <signal.h>

// initialize

int sigempty(sigset_t *set);

int sigfillset(sigset_t *set);

// manipulate

int sigaddset(segset_t *set, int signo);

int sigdelset(segset_t *set, int signo);

setting the signal action
Setting the signal action
  • Once you have defined a signal set, you can choose a particular method of handling a signal using sigaction.
  • Usage

#include <string.h>

int sigaction(int signo, const struct sigaction *act,

const struct sigaction *oact);

sigaction continued
sigaction continued
  • sigaction structure contains a signal set.
  • The first parameter signo specifies the signal for which we want to specify action
  • SIGSTOP and SIGKILL are exempt
  • The second parameter act gives the action you want to set for signo.
  • The third parameter oact will be filled out with the current settings.
slide30

Without interrupts

With an interrupt

the sigsetjmp and siglongjmp
The sigsetjmp and siglongjmp

A program position is saved in in an object of type sigjmp_buf (defined in <setjmp.h>

sigsetjmp and siglongjmp signals
sigsetjmp and siglongjmp signals
  • Sometimes it is useful to go back to a certain part of a program if a signal occurs
  • sigsetjmp saves the mask of the current signal set and the current position in the program
  • siglongjmp restores the mask if encountered (like a long-distance, non-local goto statement) and returns control to the point in the program where it was saved.
signal blocking
Signal Blocking
  • If a program is performing a sensitive task, it may well need to be protected from interrupts.
  • Rather than ignore the signals, a process can block the signals
  • The signals will be handled after the completion of the task.
the sigprocmask system call
The sigprocmask system call
  • Usage

#include <signal.h>

int sigprocmak(int how, const sigset_t *set, sigset_t *oset);

The how parameter tells the system call what specific action to take. For example it coul be set to SIG_SETMASK, which means block out the signals in the second parameter set from now on. The third parameter is simply filled with the current mask of blocked signals.

sending signals to other processes
Sending signals to other processes
  • The kill system call
  • Usage

#include <sys/types.h>

#include <signal.h>

int kill(pid_t pid, int sig);

sending signals using raise and alarm
Sending signals using raise and alarm
  • raise() simply sends a signal to the executing process.
  • alarm() is a simple and useful call that sets up a process alarm clock. Signals are used to tell the process that the clock’s timer has expired.
  • alarm is not like sleep, which suspends the process execution, alarm returns immediately.
  • After a fork, however the alarm clock is turned off in a child process.
the pause system call
The pause system call
  • pause is a companion to alarm.
  • pause suspends the calling process, in a way that will not waste CPU cycles, until any signal, such as SIGALRM, is received.
  • If the process ignores the signal, the pause also ignores the signal.
  • If the signal is caught, when the appropriate interrupt routine is finished, pause returns a -1.
piping
Piping
  • Pipes and other IPCs