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  1. Carpentry By: Thomas, Ashley, Nicholas and Cole

  2. BRIDGING • Wood or metal members that are placed between trusses and joists in an angled position intended to spread the loads.

  3. EAVE • The edge of a roof projecting over the outside wall of the house.

  4. FASCIA • The flat surface located at the outer end of a roof overhang or cantilever end.

  5. GABLE • The portion of the roof above the eaves line of a double sloped roof.

  6. PEAK • Point on the truss where the sloped chords meet.

  7. PITCH • The angle of incline as a measurement is the ratio of the rise of roof to the span of the building. It indicates the incline of a roof as a ratio. The ratio of the vertical rise to the horizontal run (span). It is expressed as a fraction. For example, if the rise of the roof is 4 feet, and the run is 12 feet, the roof is designated as having a pitch of 4/12.

  8. PRESS-ON PLATE • A truss connector manufactured with pre-formed teeth that are embedded into the lumber usually by an air or hydraulic press.

  9. RAFTER/COMMON • A rafter is a sloping roof member that supports the roof covering which extends from the ridge or the hip of the roof to the eaves. A common rafter is one which runs square with the plate and extends to the ridge.

  10. SOFFIT • The underside of a roof overhang or truss cantilever end.

  11. WEB MEMBER • Members that join the top and bottom chords to form the triangular patterns typical of trusses. These members typically carry axial forces.

  12. WHAT IS THE ADVANTAGE OF USING 2”x6” WALLS? • Newer homes in colder climates will use 2x6’s, to create more space for insulation.

  13. WHAT PURPOSE DOES THE CORNER POST SERVE? • Where two walls meet in a corner there needs to be some extra framing for the drywall.

  14. GIVE TWO COMMON METHODS OF SCABBING ON A CORNER POST • 1) Add 2x4 spacer blocks between the end stud and then install an extra “corner stud.” • 2) Lay an extra corner stud sideways, flush with the inside edge of the bottom plate.

  15. SIL PLATE • The bottom member of a window.

  16. CORNER BRACES • Diagonal braces placed at the corners of framed walls to stiffen them and provide extra strength.

  17. CRIPPLE STUD • Short studs to support a window.

  18. HEADER • A beam placed above doors, or windows to carry the weight of structural loads.

  19. LOAD-BEARING WALL • A wall that supports structural weight above it. Identified by having ceiling joists running perpendicularly above it.

  20. NON LOAD-BEARING WALL • A wall that supports no load other than its own weight.

  21. ON CENTER (O.C.) • The measured spacing between the center of one studs, joists, rafters, etc. to the center of the adjoining member.

  22. ROUGH OPENING • The framed-in opening, slightly larger then the actual window/door, that replaces wall studs to support the structure and accommodate a window/door.

  23. SOLE PLATE • The bottom horizontal structural member of a stud framed wall.

  24. STUD • A 2x4 or 2x6 vertical framing member used to construct walls and partitions.


  26. EXPLAIN WHAT IS MEANT BY “16 INCH CENTERS”? • The 2x4’s are placed on “16-inch centers”, meaning that the center of one 2x4 is 16 inches away from the center of the next.

  27. EXPLAIN WHAT IS A HEADER? • A header is a 2x10 beam over all windows and doors – they give the wall enough strength to support the roof. When a header spans more then 5 feet, you find double full-length studs on either side of the header instead of the single studs.

  28. HOW TO BUILD A TRUSS • Measure the width of the building • Find the pitch of the building • Measure the wood and cut • Cut out the bird’s nose • Use Press-on plate

  29. WHAT IS THE NOMINAL SIZE OF LUMBER USED FOR FLOOR JOISTS • The nominal size is 2x12 and 2x10

  30. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN NOMINAL AND ACTUAL SIZE? • Nominal size is the common name for the piece of wood and the actual size is what the piece of wood actually measures. For example, a 2x4 is the nominal size. However, the actual size for a “2x4” is 1.5x3.5

  31. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN OSB AND PLYWOOD? • Plywood and OSB are made differently. Oriented strand board is made from heat-cured adhesives and wood particles that are arranged in layers that cross. Plywood is constructed from thin sheets of veneer, which are thin layers of wood peeled from a log. In plywood, the sheets are cross-laminated and glued together using a hot press. Due to these construction differences, plywood appears much more smooth and consistent than OSB. But the finished products are very similar in strength and performance characteristics.

  32. TAIL JOIST • Relatively shorter joists that join against a header or trimmer in floor framing.

  33. SUBFLOOR • Material fastened directly to floor joist below the finish floor.


  35. SILL • Horizontal exterior member below a window or door opening. In frame construction, the lowest structural member that rests on the foundation.

  36. RIBBON JOIST • Wood strip let into the studs to provide a bearing for joists.