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(NEW) I0101 BRIEF. Introduction. Welcome to the Instrument Stage!! Extensive and intense, and the primary focus of VT-31’s advanced syllabus

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introduction
Introduction
  • Welcome to the Instrument Stage!!
  • Extensive and intense, and the primary focus of VT-31’s advanced syllabus
  • Students are expected to demonstrate a strong cross-check, exhibit solid flying skills, maneuver the aircraft precisely, maintain radio communications awareness, manage crew coordination and cockpit duties while demonstrating procedural knowledge and good judgment in emergency situations
overview
Overview
  • Introduction
  • Stage Review
  • Local Operations
  • Airport Environment
  • Takeoff/Departure
  • Enroute
  • Arrival/Approach Brief
  • Communications
  • CRM Callouts
  • RNAV/GPS Approaches
  • Common Mistakes
  • Conclusion
stage review
Stage Review
  • Navy, USMC, USCG
    • BI Sims—4 events
    • I3200 Block Sims—5 Instrument Sims
    • I4100 Block—Instrument Intro
    • I3300 Block—Instrument Emergency Sims
    • I4200 Block—Instrument Emergency Flights
    • I4390—MidphaseCheckride
    • I4400 Block—Cross Country Events
    • I4500 Block—Advanced Instrument EPs
      • I4504: BRING INSTRUMENT RATING REQUEST, FILLED OUT!
    • I4690—Final Checkride
    • I4701—Solo Cross Country
stage review cont
Stage Review (cont.)
  • E2/C2
    • I3200 Block: 4 Instrument Sims
    • I3300 Block: 4 Instrument Emergency Sims
    • I4200 Block: 4 Instrument Emergency Flights
    • I4390: MidphaseCheckride
    • I4500 Block: Advanced Instrument Eps (Review Stage)
    • I4690: Final Instrument Check
local operations
Local Operations
  • Local airfields
  • Coded flight plans
  • Traffic conflicts
  • Approach instructions
coded flight plans
Coded Flight Plans

COMMONLY USED CANNED ROUTES

Coded Departures

KNGP Departures

Arrow 4

Island 3

Lex 2

KCRP Departures

Gin 2

Club 1

Hooks 1

See Blue Brains for complete listing and description

  • Tango 3- CRP terminal Area
  • GCA 1- NGP GCA
  • GEE 6/MUCHO 5- Valley
  • ALICE 1-Alice, BKS
  • NUBIN 3- Victoria, PSX
  • See Blue Brains for complete listing and description
local operations1
Local Operations
  • Practical application
    • Unless using a GCA-1 or a Tango-3, you must call Base Ops prior to walking to the plane at 961-2505 to file a canned route.
    • If filing a DD-175 you must hand walk flight plan to Base Ops
    • After ATIS on BTN1, switch BTN 2 and put Tango-3 or GCA-1 on request. You may also ask to put any other pre-coordinated flight plan on request at this time.
    • At Radios/Navaids, switch BTN 2 and call to copy clearance.
local operations2
Local Operations
  • Each student shall bring a DD175
    • Call the IP the night prior for CCX and Review Stage hops.
  • Each crew shall have a DD175-1 (Dash 1)
  • Have a plan to complete YOUR own training.
  • DO NOT take current pubs from VT-31
slide10
Local Operations
  • Approach instructions
    • Be alert for restrictions/instructions given by ATC
    • Always acknowledge and read back specific clearances. “Roger” or “Wilco” may be used for non-clearance related transmissions.
    • Answer quickly and concisely
slide11
Local Operations
  • Typical local examples
    • At Bubba Thomas (KT69)
    • “Navy 1G450, track the approach profile and maintain 3000, expect approach clearance in 3 minutes.”
    • Happens because company traffic or a Southwest 737 is passing under you.
takeoff departure
Takeoff/Departure
  • NAVAID Setup (Technique)
    • Joining an Airway, set up CDI for the course and Hdg Bug on a logical heading
    • Have ESIS set up to have an emergency back up readily available.
    • RADALT: DH or MDA for recovery approach
    • Use TCN channel for a VORTAC recovery
      • Allows quick switchover to recovery approach
      • Check DME with TCN/VOR switchover
    • Technique: CDI on runway heading to ensure departure from correct runway, as well as compass operation. Hdg Bug on departure turnout, such as (040 on Bay 5)
takeoff departure1
Takeoff/Departure
  • Aviate, Navigate, Communicate
    • Climb at 150 kts
    • Contact Departure
      • Who you are, passing altitude off whatever airport, flying whatever departure
    • Checklist
      • Climb checklist still goes at 1000 ft AGL.
      • Start setting up for next approach checklist.
        • If you aren’t doing something to prepare, you are wrong.
takeoff departure2
Takeoff/Departure
  • Weather minimums
    • Current weather is at or above the mins for the return approach. (3710.7T)
enroute
Enroute
  • Least busy but possibly most critical part
    • No enroute time between NGP and CRP, but some when you go to Alice, Victoria, or Brownsville.
    • Use time to ‘get ahead’
      • Get ATIS early
      • Brief approach as soon as you have the weather
    • Always be aware of position and situation
      • Look at approach plate for extra SA (ex. Alice VOR-A), you “live” on the tail of the needle.
      • Expect CRP to rapid-fire read ATIS when you check in, they don’t want to release you off frequency – you’re probably less than 5 min from IAF.
enroute1
Enroute
  • Prepare for Arrival
    • Review NOTAMS/IFR Supp
      • Restrictions and Airport Info
    • Review Charts
      • Familiarize with local airspace, airports and terrain
    • Review STARS (As Required)
      • If a STAR is published, file it.
    • Review Approach Plates
      • Review approaches and diagrams, including airport diagram to forecast a taxi plan.
      • Technique: 30 Min out, begin to get WX and review airport info (Notams, ATIS, etc). Have all checklists complete and plans made 30 NM from destination if possible.
arrival
Arrival
  • Time Management and Preparation
    • Flying the approach is the easy part
    • Remember your six T’s
  • Ensure NAVAIDs are properly set
    • DME HOLD if necessary
    • TCN Selected, correct station for TACAN
    • NDB must be constantly monitored
      • Use the Observer!
    • Both pilots must be up LOC inside FAF for ILS
      • Technique: Keep something (NDB or VOR) up for SA until FAF
    • Ensure marker beacons turned up for ILS
    • Don’t forget the LIDS check – outside ATC agencies are less forgiving than CRP.
arrival1
Arrival
  • ABCs Technique:
    • ATIS
      • Check plate for altimeter setting notes
    • Brief the Approach
    • Checklist
    • Descent
      • Maintain SA on a chart or a plate
    • Expect Vectors
      • IAF or final
arrival approach brief
Arrival/Approach Brief
  • Use a high level of professionalism.
  • When making the initial call:
    • Provide the ATIS identifier for intended airfield
    • Say “request”. (This allows the controller to be ready and helps avoid clogging up the radios twice with a complicated request).
  • When the controller says to go ahead with the request:
    • State what approach you would like
    • How you intend to fly it (vectors/procedure turn/track)
    • Where it will begin from (which IAF)
    • How it will terminate (full stop, vectors ILS, pilots own navigation to another IAF….etc).
  • These procedures will help minimize the lengthy extraction of information the controller needs to issue you a clearance and climb out instructions.
arrival approach brief1
Arrival/Approach Brief

No specific verbiage need be memorized. Rather, like an approach brief, a departure brief should cover the following items at a minimum:

a. Approach name and page number

b. NOTAMs/remarks/Trouble T

c. Navaid frequency (as applicable)

d. Initial approach fix

e. Final approach course

f. Final approach fix/glide-slope intercept altitude

g. Step-down altitudes

h. DA/MDA

i. Required vs. actual weather

j. Missed approach point

k. Circling information (as applicable)

l. Runway length/width

m. Missed approach instruction

n. Automation (Flight Director/Autopilot)

approach lighting systems
Approach Lighting Systems
  • Centerline guidance
  • Adequate length
  • Roll guidance
  • Sequenced flashers
  • Fixed/Variable intensity
slide24
Touch Down Zone Lights:

First 3000’ of rwy

36 ft from centerline

100 foot spacing

Centerline Lighting: 50 feetRunway Edge Lights: 200 feet

36’ 36’

200’

100’

50’

slide25
1000’

2000’

2000’

3000’

pilot controlled lighting
Pilot Controlled Lighting

What does the negative symbology mean?

slide27
Are Threshold lights part of the

Approach Lighting System

or part of the

Runway Lighting System?

slide28
VASI 4

VASI 2

VASI 12

VASI 8

Walker three bar system

VASI 6

VASI 16

slide29
P

PAPI’s

slide32
CRM

Described in OPNAV 3710.7.

Intended to improve the mission effectiveness of all aviation communities by enhancing crew coordination through increased awareness of associated behavioral skills.

DAMCLAS

7 crm
7. CRM
  • The PF shall fly the aircraft and maintain a dedicated heads-up lookout. If the PF wishes to be heads-down for an EXTENDED period of time, aircraft control shall be transferred to the PM who shall remain heads-up.
7 crm1
7. CRM
  • If the PM must divert attention away from normal clearing and monitoring duties for an EXTENDED period of time, he shall state, “heads-down”. Verbal acknowledgment from the PF is necessary to prevent both pilots from being heads-down at the same time.
7 crm2
7. CRM
  • Any crewmember that observes both pilots “heads-down” at the same time shall alert the PF without delay.
  • DATA ENTRY
    • Taxi – Data entry, while the aircraft is in motion, shall be made by the PM. Either pilot may make entries if the aircraft is stopped with the parking brake set.
    • In-Flight – Data entry shall be made by the PM.
7 crm3
7. CRM
  • VERIFICATION
    • After data entry, points should be verified by the instructor prior to pressing the execute button
    • This may be delegated by the IP
mandatory callouts
Mandatory Callouts

The information exchange are not “boldface” statements. We’re promoting a useful exchange of information. Just get the information in there, and don’t focus on the clumsy phrasing. See Chapter 22 in the NATOPS and appendix G for all CRM concepts, mandatory call outs, and when they should be utilized.

rnav and gps approaches

RNAV and GPS Approaches

And now for something completely different……

This will be general info only.

I0102 will be A-Mod / C-mod specific.

rnav and gps approaches1

RNAV and GPS Approaches

Preflight and ground ops

CDI scale

Inflight

Types of approaches

How to fly them

Warnings

CRM

Extras

1 preflight and gnd ops
1. Preflight and Gnd Ops
  • NOTAMS
  • Database
  • Load the FMS
1 preflight and gnd ops1
1. Preflight and Gnd Ops
  • 2 New NOTAMS to check
    • GPS
    • Database
1 preflight and gnd ops2
1. Preflight and Gnd Ops
  • KGPS - GET THE GPS NOTAMS!!!
    • Pseudo Random Noise 15
    • Unreliable 16
receiver autonomous integrity monitoring
Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring

RAIM detects faults with redundant GPS pseudorange measurements.

A minimum of five visible satellites with satisfactory geometry must be visible for GPS RAIM

1 preflight and gnd ops3
1. Preflight and Gnd Ops
  • Check that you have a current database
  • LOAD THE FMS - SID through destination and approach
    • Student loads – IP verifies and executes
  • Check RAIM for destination at ETA
1 preflight and gnd ops4
1. Preflight and Gnd Ops
  • Determine that the waypoints and transition names coincide with names found on the procedure chart.
  • Determine that the waypoints are logical in location, in the correct order, and that their orientation to each other is as found on the procedure chart, both laterally and vertically
2 cdi scale
2. CDI SCALE
  • CDI Displacement
  • 3 Modes of Operation
    • Enroute
    • Terminal
    • Approach
2 cdi scale2
2. CDI SCALE
  • Enroute Mode
    • CDI = +/-5NM
  • Enroute mode is active:
    • Once reaching 30 nm from the departure airport
    • Until within 30 nm of arrival airport
2 cdi scale3
2. CDI SCALE
  • Terminal Mode
    • Once within 30 nm of the arrival field, CDI sensitivity improves to +/-1NM
      • T-44A - APPR light on annunciator panel
      • T-44C “TERM”message on PFD
    • VERBAL RESPONSE REQUIRED
      • “APPROACH MODE ARMED”
2 cdi scale4
2. CDI SCALE
  • APPROACH MODE
    • Once withing 2 nm of FAWP, CDI sensitivity improves to +/-.3NM
      • T-44A – Short message in scratchpad (if you miss it, check CDI displacement on Progress 3-3)
      • T-44C – “GPS APPROACH” Message on PFD
    • VERBAL RESPONSE REQUIRED
      • “APPROACH MODE ACTIVE”
2 cdi scale5
2. CDI SCALE
  • “Approach Armed / Approach Active” are MANDATORY calls.
  • Technique –
    • Sandwich the landing checklist: “At 2 nm, verify approach mode Active. Speed checks, gear down, landing checklist.” Do the checklist, and after you hear “Checklist Complete” say, “Verify approach mode Active.”
before approach
BEFORE APPROACH
  • Check RAIM enroute
  • Withing 30 nm of airport, APPR light must illuminate, or TERM on T-44C PFD.
    • OBSTACLE CLEARANCE DEPENDS ON THIS
before approach1
BEFORE APPROACH
  • APPR light requires a verbal response
    • “APPR MODE ARMED”
  • Check points from FMS with the procedure
    • Check names and that the procedure looks logical on your display (T-44C)
before approach2
BEFORE APPROACH
  • Proceed to IAF
  • Check for large intercept angle and be prepared for early transition?
  • When can you descend?
when to descend
WHEN TO DESCEND
  • ESTABLISHED AT IAF:
    • Established on the Approach &
    • In Terminal Mode (“APPROACH MODE ARMED”)
  • ESTABLISHED AT FAF:
    • Established on the Approach &
    • In Approach Mode (“APPROACH MODE ACTIVE”)
missed approach waypiont mawp
Missed Approach Waypiont: MAWP
  • MAP: 2 Choices
    • 1 – Go-Around button
      • Auto sequences and puts you in Mod-Legs (A-mod) / Active Legs (C-mod) page, but doesn’t become active yet
      • Push EXECUTE and the needles/CDI will go to the next point (Not required in C-mod – it removes Inhibiting).
    • 2 – Manual Sequencing
      • At MAP, manually sequence to the MAWP
    • ** REMEMBER, THE A-MODEL BOX WON’T TELL YOU EVERYTHING, YOU MUST FOLLOW THE PAPER
slide60
MAWP
  • WARNING!!!

*** DO NOT change the FMS settings prior to the MAP (delete the Discontinuity, cycle to the next point, etc..). Doing so will change the CDI displacement back to +/- 1 nm and you will not have the required navigational performance to be down at MDA.

after approach
AFTER APPROACH
  • Staying at the same airport?
    • for another approach, simply select another one
  • Going somewhere else?
    • Change arrival airport or use On Deck / Secondary flight plan.
6 warnings integ light raim
6. WARNINGS INTEG LIGHT (RAIM)
  • INTEG Light (NAV “OFF” FLAG)
    • RAIM is not available
    • Signal may not keep you inside RNP values for current segment of flight
  • NO RAIM = Can’t use GPS for guidance
    • APPROACHES
    • SID/STAR
    • ENROUTE
6 warnings integ light raim1
6. WARNINGS INTEG LIGHT (RAIM)
  • Your NAV ‘OFF’ Flag
  • PRIOR TO FAWP
    • Transition to a ground-based navaid approach or get vectors.
    • DO NOT DESCEND TO MDA
  • AFTER FAWP
    • Transition to a ground-based navaid approach or get vectors.
    • CLIMB AND PROCEED TO MAWP
7 extras
7. EXTRAS
  • Step-down fixes beyond the FAF will not be in the database
  • You cannot create any IAPs, nor alter them.
    • You may only pull them directly from the database.
    • THIS MEANS CREATING WPs TO FLY AN ARC IS ILLEGAL!
      • No GPS-based arcing approaches allowed!
gps in lieu of adf dme
GPS IN LIEU OFADF/DME

You can use GPS for:

    • Determine position over a DME fix
    • Navigating to/from an NDB/OM (even if it’s out of service)
    • Determine position over an NDB/OM
    • Hold over an NDB/OM
  • DOES NOT MEAN YOU CAN SHOOT AN OTS NDB APPROACH WITH THE GPS IF IT ISN’T AN OVERLAY APPROACH!!!
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Focus of Maritime Advanced Program
  • Study!
    • NATOPS
    • FTI
    • AIM/FAR
    • AIGT workbook
    • NATOPS Instrument Flight Manual (IFM)
    • OPNAVINST 3710.7
  • Be familiar with Local Operations
  • Chairfly Approaches, Briefs and EPs
  • This is all about you. Its YOUR wings, YOUR career and YOUR responsibility to come ready.
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