Kinesics Body movement and gestures
Movement communicates meaning • Talk to the hand • “Oh no you dint!” • The snap (in Z formation)
Posture & Gait • Expressions related to posture, gait • “grow a spine” • walking with a “spring in your step” • “stand up for yourself” • “stand up straight” • “hold your head high” • “don’t slouch.” • “stand still” • In Western culture, an upright, yet relaxed body posture, is associated with confidence, positivity, high self esteem (Guerrero & Floyd, 2006).
Posture & Gait • Power walk • Shuffling • Runway model walk • Sashay • Swagger • Arms swinging vs. not swinging • “Light in the loafers” • Gait, posture and victimization • “A weak walking style sends a cue of vulnerability to a would-be mugger or attacker.” (Gunn,s Johnson, & Hudson, 2002) • “Confident walkers rank near the bottom of potential targets of crime”(Ivy & Wahl, 2009).
Posture and Body Movement • Nonverbal indicators of Liking • Forward lean • Body and head orientation facing the other person • Open body positions • Affirmative head nods • Moderate gesturing and animation • Close interpersonal distances • Moderate body relaxation • Touching • Initiating and maintaining eye contact • Smiling • Mirroring (congruent posture)
Posture and Body Movement • Nonverbal indicators of dislike • Indirect, oblique body orientation • No eye contact, or eye contact of short duration • Averted eyes • Unpleasant facial expressions • Relative absence of gestures • Body rigidity, bodily tension • Incongruent postures
Scheflen’s Dimensions of Posture • inclusiveness/noninclusiveness The degree to which one’s body position includes or excludes someone else. Inclusiveness indicates liking, interest in the other person. • face to face/parallel The degree to which people face each other, square on, versus at an angle or side by side. A square on position indicates mutual involvement, some level of intimacy. • congruence/incongruence The degree of mirroring, matching, mimicry
Posture, dominance, and sexual orientation • Posture and Dominance • Taking up space • Arms akimbo • Maintaining gaze • Pointing at someone • Violating another’s personal space
Body movement and sexual orientation • Studies on “Gaydar” demonstrate that people can distinguish another’s sexual orientation at better than chance odds. • This does not mean “Gaydar” is infallible.
Public Speaking • When speaking before a group: • Stand straight, yet relaxed • Don’t slouch • Don’t lean on or hide behind a podium • Don’t look frozen, wooden • Avoid nervous pacing • Movement should be purposeful • Movement should complement or punctuate the verbal message
Interpreting posture • What are these people conveying with their bodies?
Interpreting posture • Are these couples getting along?
Gestures • Humans have uniquely expressive hands.
Gestures • The meaning of a gesture depends on its context • flipping someone the “bird” could be serious or playful.
Gestures • Gestures may be conflicting • Yawning while saying you are not tired. • Looking involved but saying, “I don’t care,”
Emblems • Emblems are used intentionally. • They have verbal equivalents • They have a clear, consistent meaning within a particular culture • Cross my heart • Shame on you • Peace sign • I’m crazy
Illustrators • Illustrators are used intentionally. • Illustrators are tied to speech. • They reinforce or supplement what is being said. • Illustrators are most common in face-to-face interaction • Illustrators are so habitual, people use them when talking on the phone • Examples of illustrators • Two palms held up signify “I don’t know. • Wagging a finger while making a point • Rolling one’s eyes in disbelief • “For example” gesture • Just a pinch • Hitting one’s fist for emphasis • A double head nod • Pointing when giving directions • I caught a fish this big. • After you
Affect displays • Affect displays may or may not be intentional • Affect displays convey feeling and emotion • They are often communicated via facial expressions • They can be difficult to interpret • Interpreting affect displays: • Look at the face to determine the emotion • Look at body cues to determine the strength or intensity of the emotion.
Affect displays Are these people expressing the same emotion, in differing degrees, or different emotions altogether?
Regulators • Regulators are primarily unintentional • They regulate turn-taking behavior • Conversational give and take depends on regulators • Types of turn-taking • Turn-requesting cues • Turn maintaining cues • Turn yielding cues • Turn denying cues
Regulators • Regulate the ebb and flow of conversation
Adaptors • Adaptors are usually unintentional. • Adaptors include self-touching behaviors • Adapters signal nervousness, anxiousness, boredom • Generally speaking, adapters are perceived negatively • However, adaptors may be perceived as more genuine, authentic • Examples of adaptors • Fiddling with one’s hair • Chewing one’s fingernails • Tapping one’s foot or leg • Biting one’s lips • Scratching one’s arm • Wringing one’s hands • Clenching one’s jaw
Adaptors • Hair twirling is an adaptor, but does it always mean the same thing?
Adaptors • Object adaptors include: • Tapping a pencil • Drumming one’s fingers • Adjusting one’s clothing • Playing with jewelry • Adaptors when students take tests • Hair twirling • Scratching • Ear pulling • Forehead rubbing
Nonverbal leave taking behaviors • What do people do when • they are ending an interpersonal conversation? • they are getting ready to leave class? • they are ending a phone conversation? • Does it depend on: • the communication context? • the nature of the relationship? • cultural considerations?