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Other important components of diet. Recap: Nutrients we’ve covered so far. Macronutrients -carbohydrates -fats -proteins Micronutrients -minerals -vitamins -water. But there are a few more important things – can you think of any?. Fibre.

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recap nutrients we ve covered so far

Recap: Nutrients we’ve covered so far..











Fiber is important to obtain within our diet, as it has the following benefits:

-slows digestion

-creates a feeling of fullness

-weight control

-fights fat by interfering with fat and cholesterol absorption lowering risk of heart disease

-prevents constipation



- Prevent damage caused by oxidation

- Oxidation: chemical reaction in which molecules of a substance may be broken down

- This process creates free radicals which can be damaging to cells

-Antioxidants help to remove free radicals released by this metabolic process

-They are found in fruits (mostly berries - blueberries, blackberries, acai berries) and vegetables (such as broccoli, tomatoes, and spinach

-Vitamins A, C, E are also antioxidants




Water makes up 50-70% of the body and we loose 2-2.5L/day due to things such as?

- Urination, perspiration (sweating), bowel movements, and exhalation

It is very important that we replenish our body’s supply of water daily, as it has many important functions:

-improves energy and digestion

-removes waste and toxins

-temperature control

-mental and physical performance

- Sources: Liquids, fruits, vegetables

basal metabolic rate

BasAl Metabolic Rate

BMR is an estimate of how many calories you would burn if you were to do nothing but rest for 24 hours.

Calculating BMR

For men: (13.75 x w) + (5 x h) - (6.76 x a) + 66

For women: (9.56 x w) + (1.85 x h) - (4.68 x a) + 655

w = weight in kg

h = height in cm

a = age in years

what is a calorie
What is a calorie?

The calorie is an old term (Nicholas Clement in 1824) that was originally used as a unit of heat.

It is used in some countries as a measure of food energy, however was replaced by the SI Unit, the Joule in 1867.

different definitions
Different definitions
  • In chemistry the calorie (or gram calorie, unit cal) is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of water by one degree Celsius. (4.184 Joules)
  • In food energy terms, the calorie (or kilogram calorie, unit c) is the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree Celsius. (4 184 Joules or 4.184 kJ)

Calorimetry is the science of measuring the heat of chemical reactions.

It was founded by Joseph Black, a Scottish physician, who was the first to distinguish between heat and temperature.

bomb calorimetry
Bomb Calorimetry

A method to measure the heat of combustion using a strong sealed vessel

The heat simply raises the temperature of the surroundings based on the reaction that is happening.

By burning a weighed piece of food underneath a measured quantity of water, the amount of calories/gram of the food can be determined.