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9-24 Warm Up. PUMA, KORINA and whoever else…set your experiment up!!! Bennie, Hagles, Millers, Grassland --- SODA??? Finish your lab set up!!! Everyone else – get out your worksheet packet You have until 8:30 to finish pages 1-6. Composition of Matter - Ch 2. Hakim. Terms…. Matter –

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9 24 warm up
9-24 Warm Up

PUMA, KORINA and whoever else…set your experiment up!!!

Bennie, Hagles, Millers, Grassland --- SODA??? Finish your lab set up!!!

Everyone else – get out your worksheet packet

You have until 8:30 to finish pages 1-6

terms
Terms…
  • Matter –
    • Anything that occupies space and has mass
  • What is the difference between mass and weight?
    • Mass –
      • Amount of matter something has
    • What is weight?
      • Measure of the pull of gravity on an object
slide4
Elements
    • Substances that cannot be broken into simpler kinds of matter
  • Atom –
    • Simplest particle of an element that retains the properties of that element
  • Nucleus -
    • Contains protons and neutron
    • Makes up most of the mass
slide5
Proton
    • Positively charged particles in nucleus
  • Electron
    • Negatively charged particles that orbit the nucleus
  • Neutron
    • Neutral particle in the nucleus
slide6
Atomic Number
    • Number of protons
  • Mass Number
    • Number of protons and neutrons in an atom
  • Isotopes
    • Atoms can have different number of neutrons
    • EX: Carbon-12, Carbon-13 & Carbon-14
  • So the number of isotopes are averaged and that is the mass number on the periodic table
  • So the majority of Carbon (~99%) has ______ neutrons?
  • 6
9 25 warm up
9-25 Warm up
  • What is the difference between atomic number and mass number?
  • Water your plants (not too much!) Water is in water bottles up front.
  • Get out the worksheet pages 1-6…put your name on it…tear off back sheet…pass pages forward!!!
  • Also, hand in your warm ups!
slide8
Compounds -
    • Atoms of two or more elements
  • Elements usually bond to become more stable
  • Energy Levels
    • First energy level can hold 2 electrons
    • Second energy level can hold 8 electrons
    • Third energy level can hold 18 electrons
    • Atoms want their energy levels to be full so they are more stable
    • http://my.hrw.com/sh/hm2/0030724872/student/ch02/sec01/qc07/hm202_01_q07fs.htm
    • Draw this….
slide9

How many electrons in…

  • How many does it need to become stable?
  • How many electrons in…
    • And how many needed to be stable?
9 28 warm up
9-28 Warm Up
  • How many electrons can carbon accept in it’s 2nd energy orbital?
  • Check your plants for growth and water them if the soil is no longer moist.
carbon organic chem
Carbon = Organic Chem.
  • Carbon bonds readily with other elements…why do you think this happens?
  • B/c carbon has only4 e- in it’s outer orbital,meaning it readily accepts e- from otherelements
compound
Compound
  • Aspirin:
    • http://my.hrw.com/sh/hm2/0030724872/student/ch02/sec01/qc08/hm202_01_q08fs.htm
slide14

Sharing 1 electron = single bond

Sharing 2 electrons= double bond

Sharing 3 electrons= triple bond

  • Draw…
bonds
Bonds
  • Covalent Bond –
    • Two atoms share electrons
      • Water
      • http://my.hrw.com/sh/hm2/0030724872/student/ch02/sec01/qc09/hm202_01_q09fs.htm
bonds1
Bonds
  • Ions –
    • Atom / molecule with a charge ( + or - )
    • Elements give / take electrons to become more stable
  • Ionic Bond –
    • Charged ions attracting each other
    • http://my.hrw.com/sh/hm2/0030724872/student/ch02/sec01/qc12/hm202_01_q12fs.htm
9 29 warm up
9-29 Warm Up
  • What is the difference between a covalent bond and an ionic bond?
states of matter
States of Matter
  • Solid
  • Liquid
  • Gas
    • Which state has the least energy? The most?
  • Solid  Liquid  Gas
  • Which state occupies the most volume?
  • Which take shape of container?
activation energy
Activation Energy
  • Activation Energy –
    • Most rxns need energy input to begin
  • Enzyme -
    • Protein that speeds up rxns w/o being changed (lowers activation energy)
  • http://my.hrw.com/sh/hm2/0030724872/student/ch02/sec02/qc06/hm202_02_q06fs.htm
polarity
Polarity
  • Polarity –
    • When a molecule has an uneven distribution of charge
  • Water -
    • Oxygen doesn’t share the e- equally with hydrogen
    • The oxygen pulls the e- closer, thus the oxygen has a partial negative charge and the hydrogen gets a partial positive charge (draw the picture)
bonds2
Bonds
  • Hydrogen Bonds – muyimportante
    • Weak attraction between the partially negative oxygen and partially positive hydrogen
    • This is gives water some VERY IMPORTANT qualities
slide25

Hydrogen bonds creates surface tension – water “sticks” to itself

  • Which is more dense, water or metal?
    • Metal
  • Floating paper clip?!?!
  • Metal, but paperclip floats b/c water is weakly bonded and those bonds are not breaking.
states of water
States of Water
  • What is the most dense state of water?
    • Water
  • This is very important…b/c if ice was more dense lakes wouldfreeze solid and no life could survive
9 30 warm up
9-30 Warm Up
  • What is activation energy?
  • Test and review sheets due Monday…review for the test tomorrow
solubility
Solubility
  • How well something will dissolve in a liquid
  • Water = polar….which allows it to dissolve other polar / ionic substances
  • Or substances that ionically bonded
    • NaCL
    • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gN9euz9jzwc&feature=related
water and oil
Water and Oil
  • Do water and oil mix? Why / why not?
  • Below is the chemical structure of olive oil…it is NON-POLAR
  • The POLAR water does not dissolve / interact with the NON-POLAR oil.
in your notes using a book
In your notes…using a book
  • Define:
  • Cohesion –
    • attractive force of similar substances
      • Water to water
  • Adhesion –
    • Attractive force of different substances
      • Water to glass
  • Explain how capillary action or capillarity works
slide31
pH –
    • Measure of how acid / basic a substance is
acids and bases
Acids and Bases
  • Acids http://my.hrw.com/sh/hm2/0030724872/student/ch02/sec03/qc05/hm202_03_q05fs.htm
    • Have low pH
    • Have a lot of H3O+ (HCL or H2SO4)
    • H20 + HCl = H30+ + Cl-
    • http://my.hrw.com/sh/hm2/0030724872/student/ch02/sec03/qc06/hm202_03_q06fs.htm
  • Bases
    • High pH
    • Have a lot of OH- (NaOH)
    • H20 + NaOH = Na+ + OH-
    • http://my.hrw.com/sh/hm2/0030724872/student/ch02/sec03/qc07/hm202_03_q07fs.htm