3rd Quarter Exam Terms to Know Parable Apostle Disciple Messiah Truth The Way Faith Martyr Annas Christ Kingdom of God Incarnation Herod Antipas Evangelist Resurrection Sadducees Essenes (Zealots) Nationalism Pontius Pilate Synoptic Gehenna The Law Augustus Tiberius Pompei Herod Pharisees Caiaphas
THE NEW TESTAMENT
“Christ,” “title given to Jesus Based on Greek word ‘Christos,’ meaning “anointed one.” JN 14:6 Jesus said to him, “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”
TRUTH survives the test of time – that which is fake/false or based on a lie will not survive the test of time. TRUTH is eternal. Jesus is the TRUTH. JN 3:21 But whoever lives the truth comes to the light, so that his works may be clearly seen as done in God.
“New Testament:” God’s self revelation in the person Jesus Christ Faith testament of the early Church Revelation varied and gradual Over time in salvation history. Over time in personal history.
SOURCES Biblical, “3 Fold Tradition:” Historical Event, Oral Tradition, Written Tradition.
AUTHENTICITY AND INTEGRITY OF THE NEW TESTAMENT Did Jesus Really Exist? (Historical Sources)
HISTORICAL SOURCES JOSEPHUS (1st Century AD) Jewish historian “disturbances during the time of Pilot around a man names Jesus, wise doer of wonderful works, later condemned and crucified.”
HISTORICAL SOURCES TACITUS (64 AD) Roman historian Mentioned that Nero blamed “Christians” for burning of Rome. PLINY THE YOUNGER (110 AD) Roman governor Seeks advice on how to handle “Christians” Mentions Jesus.
HISTORICAL SOURCES SUETONIUS (120 AD) Roman historian and lawyer Mentions Claudius expelling Jews from Rome due to disagreements concerning a certain “Chrestus.”
HISTORICAL SOURCES, Review Numerous sources Varied genre Authenticity of Jesus No authenticated counter arguments Human nature & persecutions After Resurrection, few followers turn back.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND War, Politics & Religious Conflicts
300 B.C. Greece dominates Alexander the Great conquers Mediterranean area and as far east as India Conflicts within military & political ranks
Conflicts deepen after death of Alexander Palestine caught in middle Syrian Greeks dominate north - Egyptian Greek control south Syrian Greeks heavily influence north (“Gentile Galilee”) Egyptian Greeks leave south alone
Religious toleration (in general) throughout Palestine Eventually Syrian Greeks control all of Palestine Romans defeat Greece in naval battle Greece must pay war retributions Jewish people heavily taxed 2x (government and “Temple tax”) Age of religious toleration finished
Jewish Factions Sadducees - Aristocratic priestly class. Accommodating in politics. Conservative in religion. Great devotion to Temple.
Jewish Factions Pharisees - Originated from the "Hasadim” (“pious ones”). Not great friends of the Greeks. Committed more to "The Law" than the Temple. Applies Scriptures to everyday life. Thus, open to new developments in Jewish thought.
Jewish Factions Essenes - (Zealots) Reactionary Jewish community. Withdrew from Jewish society altogether to observe strict religious traditions. Possible Writers - “Dead Sea Scrolls” Judas Iscariot
Historical, Review • Numerous factions: • Rome vs. Greece • North vs. South • Greek vs. Jew • Jew vs. Jew • Looking for power, money & influence. • Alliances formed depending on needs & wants
GEOGRAPHY Diverse Geography - UNIQUE Lakes (Sea of Galilee) Sea coast and ocean (Mediterranean) Rivers (Jordan) and fertile valleys Mountains (E and W of Sea of Galilee, Golan Heights) Deserts.
CLIMATE Average temp from 60 - 72 with low humidity. In desert, temperature range from 122 during day to sub 0 at night. Snow in mountains / Jerusalem Rains and violent storms especially in October and March (seasons of change).
DISTANCES Coast to Dead Sea = 70 miles (Philadelphia to NYC) Sea of Galilee along Jordan River to Dead Sea = 65 miles directly. Jordan River actually 180 miles long with winding turns. Damascus (Syria) - south Dead Sea = 200 miles (Boston - NYC).
SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND Occupations: Farmers (tending vineyards, fig- & olive trees) Shepherds and herdsmen Fishermen (Sea of Galilee) Tradesmen (carpenters, merchants, tent makers, tax collectors, sandal makers, tanners, perfume salesmen).
SOCIO-ECONOMIC BACKGROUND Social Divisions: Large gap between “haves” & “have-nots” Slavery existed Religion played major role Underclass = women, lepers, children, widows.
GEO-POLITICAL - Locally In The South Judea settled by returning “Diaspora” from Persian Exile Jerusalem religious, political center Forced acceptance of Arab rule by the Romans (Herod)
GEO-POLITICAL - Locally In Samaria Immediate north - Location Conquered by Assyrians. Many not exiled by Babylon. Lost touch with southern cousins & developed own religious scriptures & rites Highly suspect by Jerusalem Jews.
GEO-POLITICAL - Locally In Galilee Located in north Mostly Jewish Because of heavy Greek influence, seen as “lower class.” Jesus begins public ministry here
GEO-POLITICAL SITUATION In Wider Roman World
Roman World 300 - 150 BC, areas influenced by Greece Factions appeal to Rome Rome closes in for kill; and by 63 B.C. rules Palestine. General Pompeii Herod “The Great” and 3 sons appointed to rule Palestine areas Last one removed and eventually replaced by “procurator” (governor) named Pontius Pilot.
Epilogue Anti-Roman feelings Hope for another “united kingdom” (like David’s)led to Maccabeus-Type revolt in 66 A.D. Crushed and Temple destroyed by Romans in 70 - 72 A.D. Diaspora
JESUS IN THE GOSPELS Code in Johns Gospel Word, Light, Truth, Way To Avoid Romans
JESUS IN THE GOSPELS - Incarnation JN 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. “In-carnation,” “en-fleshment” GOD BECAME MAN Jesus has a human component FULLY HUMAN A faith that is alive must also have an active, human component..
JESUS IN THE GOSPELS JN 1:14 And the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father's only Son, full of grace and truth.
JESUS IN THE GOSPELS JN 1:2 He was in the beginning with God. JN 1:3-5 All things came to be through him, and without him nothing came to be. What came to be through him was life, and this life was the light of the human race; the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.
JESUS IN THE GOSPELS - BAPTISM JN 1:6-9 A man named John was sent from God. He came for testimony, to testify to the light, so that all might believe through him. He was not the light, but came to testify to the light. The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world. BEGINNING OF PUBLIC MINISTRY
JESUS IN THE GOSPELS - BAPTISM 1. THE BAPTISM OF JESUS SIGNALS THE BEGINNING OF JESUS’ PUBLIC MINISTRY 2. THE BAPTISM OF JESUS SIGNALS MEMBERSHIP IN A GREATER COMMUNITY
Sacrament of Baptism Cleansing & Community
PREPARATION • Baptisms once a year • At the Vigil of Easter • 2 - 5 year preparation. • Reasons: • Requires Conversion • Catechesis on the Faith • Protection from backsliding
BAPTISM OIL (exocisms) & WATER (baptism) “Spirits of Good and Evil” First anointing, Oil of Catechumens: Protection against spirit of water = Protection against spirit of Satan..
BAPTISM THE SACRAMENT Enter facing west Sun sets in West --- Sign of darkness and death - “Plunges” into water 3 times Comes out facing east Sun rises in East Symbol of light and life
BAPTISM SYMBOLS Candle - gives off light and heat… Symbols of wisdom and love Held by Godparent One of the Symbols of Church..
BAPTISM SYMBOLS Alb - symbol of Resurrection Chrism - perfumed oil Used to anoint royalty “Poured” on baptized