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Chs. 1 & 2: Early Man to Early Civilizations. Prehistory to 450 B.C. Early Man Key Terms. Culture – people’s unique way of life Hominid – early upright beings Artifact – man made object from previous cultures

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early man key terms
Early Man Key Terms
  • Culture – people’s unique way of life
  • Hominid – early upright beings
  • Artifact – man made object from previous cultures
  • Mary Leakey – discoveries in E. Africa that led to a better understanding of early man.
  • Donald Johanson – found “Lucy in Ethiopia 3.5 millions years old
  • Paleolithic – Old Stone Age – Hunter and Gatherer
  • Neolithic – New Stone Age – Faming (also called Agricultural Revolution)
  • Technology – ways of applying knowledge to meet needs
Homo habilis – earliest man, used primitive tools
  • Homo erectus – walked upright (not the first) and used fire
  • Homo sapiens – modern humans, means “wise man”
      • Neanderthals – not ancestors of modern man, tried to explain and control their world, practiced religious beliefs, used stone scrappers and other tools to survive. They vanished about 30,000 years ago.
      • Cro-Magnon – physically identical to modern man, superior hunting strategy helped them survive. They developed a spoken language
early man key terms1
Early Man Key Terms
  • Slash and Burn – cutting and burning fields to clear and fertilize
  • Domestication – taming of animals
  • Artisans – skilled workers who make goods by hand
  • Scribes – professional record keepers
  • Cuneiform – Mesopotamian wedge shaped writing
  • Civilization – a complex culture with the following
      • Advanced Cities of Trade
      • Specialized Workers
      • Complex Institutions
      • Record Keeping
      • Advanced Technology
early man key words
Early Man Key Words
  • Bronze Age – use of bronze rather than copper and stone for tools and weapons.
  • Barter – exchange of goods/services without the exchange of money
  • Ziggurat – pyramid shaped monument housing the temple of the city
early man overview
Early Man Overview

Prehistory is the period before written records. The earliest people’s history is based on evidence compiled and studied by a variety of scientists such as

archaeologists – study artifacts

anthropologists – study culture

paleontologists – study fossils

Together these scientists have determined, based on the evidence available, how early man lived.

early man overview1
Early Man Overview

Paleolithic Age(Old Stone Age)

  • Nomadic
  • Hunter-gatherer
  • Primitive tools
  • Cave art
early man art
Early Man Art

Early Art Gives Clues To

  • Nature
  • Environment
  • Human Living
early man overview2
Early Man Overview
  • Neolithic Age

(New Stone Age)

      • Began about 10,000 years ago
      • From hunter-gatherer to farming
      • Agricultural Revolution
      • Permanent dwellings
      • Villages→Cities→Civilizations
civilization brings change
Civilization Brings Change
  • Economic
    • irrigation→crop surplus→trade
  • Social
    • Complex economy required cooperation and labor of many people
    • Social class system developed
    • Religion became organized

early river valley civilizations
  • MESOPOTAMIA – Sumerians on the Tigris/Euphrates
  • NILE – Egyptians on the Nile
  • INDUS- Indians on the Indus & Ganges Rivers
  • CHINESE-Yellow (Huang He) /Yangtze
  • The Fertile Crescent was the arch of land that provided some of the best farming in southwest Asia.
  • Silt from flooding provided rich new soil which brought surplus harvests, with enormous quantities of wheat and barley. Problem: the flooding was unpredictable!
  • Sumerians– first civilization
    • Irrigation – more crop production= more trade
    • Establishment of city-states
    • Trade = cultural diffusion
    • Polytheistic (worshipped many gods)
    • Advanced –number system, bricks, columns, ramps
city states
  • Each city and the surrounding land it controlled formed a city-state.
  • A city-state functioned much as an independent country does today.
  • Sumerian city-states included Uruk, Kish, Lagash, Umma, and Ur.
  • The center of all Sumerian cities had a ziggurat
  • SARGON ofAkkad, defeated the city-states of Sumer.
    • Created the first empire
    • Brought together various groups & cultures
    • Last about 200 years, declined due to infighting, invasions & famine.
  • Hammurabi – ruler of Babylonian Empire.

- first written code of laws to unify the diverse people

- the code applied to all people, but not all people equally (282 specific laws compiled from common law)


Known for cuneiform writing

  • Est. about 3,000 years ago
  • Along the Nile River in Egypt
  • Flooding provided fertile soil for abundant crops
  • Lower Nile – from the area where the Nile splits and fans out to Mediterranean Sea
  • Upper Nile – from 1st cataracts to the area where the river splits
  • Transportation and trade between the Upper & Lower Nile to the cataracts
  • Ruled by pharaohs
  • Theocracy- government & religious leaders the same
  • Pyramid builders
  • Upper & Lower kingdoms united by Menes
  • Written language – hieroglyphics
  • Social classes not locked
  • Invaded and conquered by Hyksos
  • Located on the Indian subcontinent
  • Supported by the Indus and Ganges
  • Protected by Hindu Kush & Himalaya Mountains
  • Climate dominated by monsoons
  • River flooding supported abundant crop yields
  • Built planned cities
  • Indoor plumbing-
  • Houses alike indicated few class distinctions
  • Toys – leisure time
  • Few weapons
  • Uncertain – the fall of the Indus River Civilization could have been disaster, invasions or a combination
  • Supported by the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
  • Silt of China – loess produced abundant crops
  • Because of geography – less trading than other river valley civilizations
  • Early leaders (Shang dynasty) built palaces and had written language
  • Society divided between ruling nobles and peasant farmers
  • Family closely linked to religion
chinese civilization

Supported by the Yellow & Yangtze Rivers

  • Belief in the spirit of ancestor’s power to determine events in life
  • Use of oracle bones
  • Writing system had no connection to the spoken language
  • Specialized in weapons, jewelry and bronze. Also known for silk work.
  • Rulers worked under Mandate of Heaven which became central to the Chinese view of government.