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“How the Middle East Got That Way”
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  1. “How the Middle East Got That Way”

  2. Word Worm: • Diaspora • the movement, migration, or scattering of people away from an established or ancestral homeland • Zionism: • Jewish right to a homeland • Mandate: • Land to be governed by an outside power until ready for independence. • Self Determination: • A nation’s right to decide their political future Mt. Zion, Jerusalem

  3. Israel- Haifa

  4. East Jerusalem

  5. United Kingdom of Israel… The United Kingdom of Israel existed during the reigns of Saul, David and Solomon from 1020 BCE to 930 BCE. The old kingdom is the basis of modern Zionist territorial claims to land in the Middle East and an important factor in Israel-Palestine disputes. Jewish tribes were expelled from Palestine in 586 BCE by King Nebuchadnezzar of the Babylonian Empire and the area became predominantly Arabic and Islamic after the seventh century of the Common Era. The old largely agricultural way of life continued after Palestine became a province of the Ottoman Empire (1301).

  6. Roman Empire

  7. Jewish Diaspora By the end of the first century BCE, Rome had taken over the eastern Mediterranean and the Jewish population was spread through many cities of the east. In the third and fourth centuries CE there were substantial Jewish settlements in most major eastern cities and many western provinces as well.

  8. Umayyad Caliphate

  9. WWI Allied & Central Powers

  10. Treaty of Versailles • After such a devastating war, the victorious Western Powers imposed a series of harsh treaties upon the defeated nations. These treaties stripped the Central Powers of substantial territories and imposed significant reparation payments. Seldom before had the face of Europe been so fundamentally changed. As a direct result of the war, the German, Austro-Hungarian, and Ottoman Empires ceased to exist. • Treaty of Sèvres on August 10, 1920, ending hostilities with the Allied Powers; but shortly thereafter a Turkish War of Independence began. The new Republic of Turkey, established in its aftermath, signed a superseding Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, effectively partitioning the old Ottoman Empire.

  11. The Middle East Breakup of the Ottoman Empire

  12. The Middle East Breakup of the Ottoman Empire Turk Shi'a Shi'a Shi'a Jews Sunni Sunni Sunni Wahhabist Christians Sunni Kurd

  13. Iraq Sunni/ Shi’a/ Kurd 1921: UK put King Feisal (outsider) on throne 1958: Socialist Baath Revolution Treaty of Versailles Palestine … TransJordan 1921: Feisal’s Bro Abdullah put on throne (Grandfather of current king) 1951: Abdullah assassinated Leb. 1943: Carved out of Syria by France

  14. Israel and Palestine Timeline Through 1940's 1917 May 1948 1947 Jewish Migration to Palestine 1914 1916 Ethnic Tensions: UK throws problem at the UN. Result? PARTITION! See Map Balfour Declaration: UK support of a JEWISH homeland. See Declaration Iraq, Jordan and Syria receive independence. What about Palestine? WWI begins Ottoman Empire falls apart Sykes-Picot Agreement: UK said Arab state would only be Saudi Arabia and Yemen: ARABS BETRAYED? 1915 1918 Allied victory in WWI: Ottoman Empire defeated MANDATES: UK: Palestine/ Trans-Jordan/ Iraq France: Lebanon/ Syria UK met with Husayn Ibn’ Ali, ruler of Mecca and Medina In exchange for help in WWI, UK said they would support Arab independence &… 1945 End of WWII (Holocaust): Mass Jewish migration into Palestine. (Palestine still 70% Arab) Arab Unity!!!

  15. UN Partition and Israeli Independence • UN divides Palestine • ½ Jewish • ½ Arab • Jerusalem an international city 5/14/1948: • Israel declares independence • Arab countries immediately attack • ARAB ISRAELI WARS! • Results? • Today, Palestine is no longer an independent country To Be Continued… 2005 Israel: 80% Jewish 20% Arab

  16. Balfour Declaration • Foreign OfficeNovember 2nd, 1917 • Dear Lord Rothschild, • I have much pleasure in conveying to you, on behalf of His Majesty's Government, the following declaration of sympathy with Jewish Zionist aspirations which has been submitted to, and approved by, the Cabinet. • "His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object, it being clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any other country." • I should be grateful if you would bring this declaration to the knowledge of the Zionist Federation. • Yours sincerely,Arthur James Balfour