Discovering and sharing effective online pedagogies Diana Laurillard London Knowledge Lab Institute of Education Annual Conference University of London 9-11 April 2014
The Context: the global demand for education The new UNESCO goals for education: • Every child completes a full 9 years of free basic education … • Post-basic education expanded to meet needs for knowledge and skills … (UNESCO post 2015 goals) By 2025, the global demand for higher education will double to ~200m per year, mostly from emerging economies(NAFSA 2010) Student loan debt in US is higher than CC debt so students will demand new models of teaching and learning 40% Student loan debt in UK will never be repaid How is HE to meet the demand for lifelong learning in a way that is affordable to students, maintains quality and increases reach?
The social purpose of HE Dearing Report, UK (1997): Aims and purposes of HE to inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential levels throughout life to inspire and enable individuals to develop their capabilities to the highest potential levels throughout life Personal - Knowledge - Economic - Social - to increase knowledge and understanding for their own sake and foster their application to the benefit of the economy and society to serve the needs of an adaptable, sustainable, knowledge-based economy at local, regional and national levels to play a major role in shaping a democratic, civilised and inclusive society
Is the MOOC model a solution? • “Content will be free” • “MOOCs will make HE accessible to the boy in a Cairo slum” • “Many academics are happy to donate time because of the reach of MOOCs” • “A piece of s/w can understand exactly how a student learns which the teacher cannot do” • “A lot of what you teach is not viable to charge for because the machine will do it better” • “No.1 pushback from investors was they did not understand why it needed to be accredited because no-one will care” • “$100m venture capital – to share tuition revenue” • “Coursera model has 3 income streams: certification (not accredited), employers pay, other institutions pay” • [Goldman Sachs MOOC debate Nov 2012]
The realities of the MOOC model “education is not content acquisition because education is a curated guided experience” [Martin Bean, VC, OU] Education is not a mass delivery industry Content is not free Teaching is also guidance, support, evaluation Education is a client-centred industry There is no valid business model for MOOCs ‘Massive’ courses are inevitable if open to all and free ‘Open to all’ means no prior qualifications a different curriculum and pedagogy ‘Online’ courses have been perfected over many years by the OU and others ‘Courses’ imply student readiness, defined outcomes, and assessment against them
The MOOC as ‘large-scale’ pedagogy Average student numbers per course - Edinburgh 51500 20500 15000 27% 6000 5500 Completed = 27% of ‘starters’ MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1
The MOOC as ‘large-scale’ pedagogy Average student numbers per course - UoL 53250 23367 17275 11377 9592 9% 7730 6747 2211 Completed = 9% of ‘starters’ MOOC Report 2013: University of London
The MOOC as undergraduate education Not for undergraduates 70% have degrees 40% 30% 17% 10% 3% Enrolled students MOOCs @ Edinburgh 2013 – Report #1
The MOOC as undergraduate education Not for undergraduates 4% 68% have degrees 29% 35% 8% 11% 8% 3% Enrolled students MOOC Report 2013: University of London
The MOOC as undergraduate education 85% have degrees MOOCs: Higher Education’s Digital Moment? 2013: UUK
The realities of the MOOC model “education is not content acquisition because education is a curated guided experience” [Martin Bean, VC, OU] Education is not a mass delivery industry Content is not free Teaching is also guidance, support, evaluation Education is a client-centred industry There is no valid business model for MOOCs ‘Massive’ courses are inevitable if open to all and free ‘Open to all’ means no prior qualifications a different curriculum and pedagogy ‘Online’ courses have been perfected over many years by the OU and others ‘Courses’ imply student readiness, defined outcomes, and assessment against them MOOCs are parasitic on university teaching paid for by undergraduates The pedagogic innovation required for effectiveness has attracted little investment The dominant users are highly qualified professionals Undergraduates need guidance, support, nurturing, which is labour intensive Achieving high-level concepts and skills requires intensive study and guidance Academic study is hard – the ‘flipped classroom’ requires extensive careful design
Discovering effective online pedagogies How do we use digital technologies to develop undergraduate education that is high quality scales up and is affordable?
The economics of teaching and learning in HE Preparation of curriculum and resources Fixed cost Adaptive systems: field trips, lab sessions, simulations, models Expositions: lectures, study guides, slides, podcasts, videos Formative assessment: feedback from peers, digital systems Readings: books, papers, websites, pdfs Collaborations: projects, workshops, role play simulations, wikis Peer group discussion: seminars, discussion forums Formative assessment: tutor feedback offline, feedback online Tutored discussion: tutorials, small groups, discussion forums Summative assessment: exams, essays, designs, performance Support for students learning Variable cost
What it takes to teach online Total teaching time Based on Duke University Report 2012 Basic MOOC: peer support, no tutor support Guided MOOC: tutors monitor and guide discussions, react to problems, redesign quizzes, post updates Guided MOOC Basic MOOC The variable cost of high quality teaching does not achieve economies of scale if you maintain the same pedagogy Prep time = 420 Preparation time (fixed cost) = 420 hrs
Balancing the benefits and costs It’s important to understand the link between the pedagogical benefits and teaching time costs of online learning – especially for the large-scale What are the new digital pedagogies that will address the 1:25 student guidance conundrum? How to shift variable cost support to fixed cost support? Can we develop a viable business model that will make HE more effective and affordable for undergraduates?
Pedagogies for supporting large classes Concealed MCQs The (virtual) Keller Plan The vicarious master class Pyramid discussion groups Conceal answers to question Ask for user-constructed input Show multiple answers/comments Ask student to improve answer Introduce content Self-paced practice Tutor-marked test Student becomes tutor for credit Until half class is tutoring the rest 240 individual students produce response to open question Pairs compare and produce joint response 60 groups of 4 compare and produce joint response and post as one of 10 responses... 6 groups of 40 students vote on best response Teacher receives 6 responses to comment on Tutorial for 5 representative students Questions and guidance represent all students’ needs
Pedagogies for supporting large classes Concealed MCQs The cascaded tutor (Keller Plan) The vicarious master class Pyramid discussion groups Laurillard, 2002 Keller, 1974 Mayes et al, 2001 Gibbs et al, 1992
What it takes to teach with technology The teaching workload is increasing in terms of Planning for how students will learn in the mix of the physical, digital and social learning spaces designed for them Curating and adapting existing content resources Designing activities and resources for all types of active learning Personalised and adaptive teaching that improve traditional methods Providing flexibility in blended learning options Guiding and nurturing large cohorts of students Using learning technologies to improve scale AND outcomes BUT: Institutions and teachers do not typically plan for the teaching workload implied by these learning benefits nor for the need to collaborate to innovate with technology
The design cycle for science What is the teaching design equivalent of the journal paper? Building scientific knowledge
The design cycle for teaching? Build on others’ tested designs Make links to existing content resources Building teaching community knowledge
Discovering and sharing online pedagogies learningdesigner.org
The Learning Designer: Adopting an idea (interpreting Tudor portraits) Details of: learning context, topic, aims, outcomes, student numbers, duration Details of the pedagogy: types of learning activity, group size, teacher presence, attached urls, duration, student guidance Analysis of the learning experience calculated dynamically
The Learning Designer: Adapting (experimental design for Psychology) Every section of the learning design can be edited, and new resources attached Share to submit for review
The Learning Designer: Reviewing (Business planning for engineers) Reviewer Feedback Notes for additional comments Reviews and comments could be student evaluations Reviewer comments according to criteria: Test of outcome? Alignment? Feedback? Technology?
Teaching as a design cycle Question: What is the teaching design equivalent of the journal paper? Answer: A learning design that can be reviewed, adapted, improved, published, reused… Building learning technology knowledge
Discovering and sharing effective online pedagogies • We can improve the variable costs of teaching support if we explore and share ideas for methods like • pyramid collaboration groups: from many students to few outputs for tutors to inspect • cascaded tutor: from one teachers to many tutors • vicarious master class: from one small group to all • For this we need a collaborative community of teachers as designers of innovative pedagogy • They will only flourish if we demand, and get, improved pedagogic design functionality on VLE platforms – and the design tools to share and test pedagogic discoveries THEN perhaps university level lifelong learning can achieve high quality and reach that is more affordable
Further details… http://learningdesigner.orghttp://buildingcommunityknowledge.wordpress.com Teaching as a Design Science: Building pedagogical patterns for learning and technology (Routledge, 2012) firstname.lastname@example.org http://bit.ly/1cqiIK1
JamilSalmi lecture at HEPI • Compulsory to go to university • Recruit on facebook • Recruit at kindergarten • Technology for content • Ebay for scholarship • Student will be part of several unis • Only using myspace, fb, etc • Open internet exams, valid degree for 5 years. • Redo courses every 3 years – but 5 min lectures • Online tutoring in Bangalore • i-labs and e-libs • All must study overseas • Reimburse who does not get a job • 10% income from govt • Salary indexed to ranking • MFA important because creativity will be so important