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IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFOMANCE ANALYSIS OF H.264 INTRA FRAME CODING, JPEG, JPEG-LS , JPEG-2000 AND JPEG-XR PowerPoint Presentation
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IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFOMANCE ANALYSIS OF H.264 INTRA FRAME CODING, JPEG, JPEG-LS , JPEG-2000 AND JPEG-XR. EE 5359 Multimedia Project Amee Solanki (1000740226 ) amee.solanki@mavs.uta.edu. Image Compression. Compression is the process of compacting data, reducing the number of bits. 

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IMPLEMENTATION AND PERFOMANCE ANALYSIS OF H.264 INTRA FRAME CODING, JPEG, JPEG-LS, JPEG-2000 AND JPEG-XR

EE 5359 Multimedia Project

Amee Solanki (1000740226)amee.solanki@mavs.uta.edu

image compression
Image Compression
  • Compression is the process of compacting data, reducing the number of bits. 
  • Reduce redundancy of the image or video data in order to be able to store or transmit data in an efficient form.

Fig.1 Comparison of original coronary angiogram (left) with two compression results. Middle: JPEG data compression by factor of CR=12, Right: factor of CR=24[14].

two types of compression
Two Types of Compression

Lossless compression:

There is no information loss, and the image can be reconstructed exactly the same as the original

Applications: medical imagery, archiving

Lossy compression:

Information loss is tolerable.

Applications: commercial distribution (DVD) and rate constrained environment where lossless methods cannot provide enough compression ratio

evolution of image compression standards
Evolution of Image Compression Standards

Fig.2 Evolution of compression technology[15]

compression standards
Compression standards

Table 1: Comparison of image compression standards[13]

baseline jpeg encoder and decoder
Baseline JPEG Encoder and Decoder

Fig.2 JPEG encoder block diagram [1]

Fig.3 JPEG decoder block diagram [1]

jpeg 2000 encoder and decoder
JPEG 2000 Encoder and Decoder

Fig. 4 (a) Encoder block diagram (b) Decoder block diagram of JPEG 2000 [2]

jpeg and jpeg 2000
JPEG and JPEG-2000

Table 2: Comparison of JPEG and JPEG 2000 [13]

jpeg ls and jpeg xr
JPEG-LS and JPEG-XR

Table 3: Comparison of JPEG-LS and JPEG-XR [13]

h 264 basics
H.264 Basics
  • H.264/AVC compression video coding is based on the traditional hybrid concept of block-based motion-compensated prediction (MCP) and transform coding
  • In order to improve the compression efficiency of intra-only compression, the following two coding tools provide major contributions to the significant bit rate savings:
  • Entropy encoding improvement, CAVLC and CABAC
  • Spatial intra prediction conducted by using spatially neighboring samples of a target block which have been previously coded.
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Spatial Intra prediction[15]

  • H.264/AVC uses both spatial and temporal predictions to increase its coding gain.
  • The intra-only compression uses spatial prediction and the prediction only occurs within a slice

Fig.4 Examples of spatial intra prediction modes for (8X8) blocks [15]

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Fig. 5 shows a 4x4 block containing 16 pixels labeled from a through p. A prediction block p is calculated based on the pixels labeled A-M obtained from the neighboring blocks.

  • A prediction mode is a way to generate these 16 predictive pixel values using some or all of the neighboring pixels in nine different directions as shown in Fig. 6.
  • In some cases, not all of the samples A-M are available within the current slice.
  • In order to preserve independent decoding of slices, only samples within the current slice are used for prediction.

Fig. 5 A 4X4 block and its neighboring pixels[16]

Fig. 6 Direction of 9 4X4 intra-prediction [16]

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Fig.7 Examples of spatial intra prediction modes for (4X4) blocks[16]

Mode 0 is the vertical prediction mode in which pixels a, e, i, and m are predicted by A and so on.

Mode 1 is the horizontal prediction mode in which pixels a,b, c, and d are predicted by I and so on.

Mode 2 is called DC prediction in which all pixels i.e. (a to p) as shown in fig. 5 are predicted by (A+B+C+D+I+J+K+L)/8.

For modes 3-8, the predicted samples are formed from a weighted average of the prediction samples A-M.

h 264 basic encoder and decoder
H.264 Basic Encoder and Decoder

Fig.8 H.264 Encoder and decoder block diagrams [3]

compressed image quality measures
Compressed Image Quality Measures

Criteria to evaluate a compressed image are as follows :

  • Compression ratio
  • Bit-rate (bandwidth)
  • Objective quality measure- PSNR, MSE (quality of compressed image)
  • Structural quality measure- SSIM
psnr and mse
PSNR and MSE
  • Peak signal-to-noise ratio, often abbreviated PSNR, is the ratio between the maximum possible power of a signal and the power of corrupting noise that affects the fidelity of its representation
  • MSE and PSNR for a NxM pixel image are defined as

(1)

(2)

where x is the original image and y is the reconstructed image. M and N are the width and height of an image and ‘L’ is the maximum pixel value in the NxM pixel image

structural similarity index
Structural Similarity Index
  • The structural similarity (SSIM) [17] index is a method for measuring the similarity between two images
  • SSIM is designed to improve on traditional methods like peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and mean squared error (MSE), which have proved to be inconsistent with human eye perception
  • SSIM considers image degradation as perceived change in structural information. Structural information is the idea that the pixels have strong inter-dependencies especially when they are spatially close
ssim metric 17
SSIM Metric [17]

where

x and y correspond to two different signals that need to be compared, i.e. two different blocks in

two separate images ;

example with ssim index
Example with SSIM index

Fig. 9 SSIM Index example [4]

table of acronyms
TABLE OF ACRONYMS

AVC advanced video coding

BMP bit map format

CABAC context adaptive binary arithmetic coding

DCT discrete cosine transform

EBCOT embedded block coding with optimized truncation

FRExt fidelity range extensions

GIF graphics interchange format

HD-photo high-definition photo

HVS human visual system

I-frame intra frame

JM joint model

JPEG joint photographic experts group

JPEG-LS joint photographic experts group lossless and lossless coding

JPEG-XR joint photographic experts group extended range

LBT lapped bi-orthogonal transform

LOCO-I low complexity lossless compression for images

MSE mean square error

PSNR peak signal to noise ratio

SSIM structural similarity index

VLC variable length coding

references
References

[1] JPEG Encoder and Decoder block diagram :http://www.cmlab.csie.ntu.edu.tw/cml/dsp/training/coding/jpeg/jpeg/decoder.htm

[2] JPEG2000 Encoder and Decoder block diagram :http://eeweb.poly.edu/~yao/EE3414/JPEG.pdf

[3] H.264 Encoder and Decoder block diagram : http://www.drtonygeorge.com/video_codec.htm

[4] SSIM Index example diagram:https://ece.uwaterloo.ca/~z70wang/research/ssim/

[5] H.264/AVC reference software (JM 17.2) website: http://iphome.hhi.de/suehring/tml/download/

[6] JPEG2000 latest reference software (Jasper Version 1.900.0) website: http://www.ece.uvic.ca/~mdadams/jasper/

[7] JPEG reference software website: ftp://ftp.simtel.net/pub/simtelnet/msdos/graphics/jpegsr6.zip

[8] JPEG-LS reference software website:http://www.hpl.hp.com/loco/

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[9] T. Wiegand, G. J. Sullivan, G. Bjontegaard and A. Luthra,” Overview of the H.264 / AVC video coding standard ” IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology,vol. 13, pp. 560-576, July 2003.

[10] A.Skodras, C. Christopoulos and T. Ebrahimi, “The JPEG 2000 still image compression standard”, IEEE Trans. on Signal Processing, vol.18, pp. 36 - 58, Aug 2002.

[11] M. J. Weinberger, G. Seroussi and G. Sapiro, “The LOCO-I lossless image compression algorithm: principles and standardization into JPEG-LS”, IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol.9, pp.1309-1324, Aug. 2000

[12] C. Christopoulos, A. Skodras and T.Ebrahimi, “The JPEG2000 still image coding system: an

overview”, IEEE Trans. on Consumer Electronics, vol.46, pp.1103-1127, Nov. 2000.

[13] T. Ebrahimi and M. Kunt, “ Visual data compression for multimedia applications”, Proc IEEE, vol.86, pp. 1109-1125, June 1998.

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[14] Image compression test image:

http://www.uni-kiel.de/Kardiologie/dicom/1999/compression1.html.

[15] Evolution of image compression standards :

ftp://ftp.panasonic.com/pub/panasonic/drivers/PBTS/papers/WP_AVC-Intra.pdf

[16] Intra-prediction modes image:

http://www.atc-labs.com/technology/h264_publication_1.pdf

[17] Z. Wang, A. C. Bovik, H. R. Sheikh and E. P. Simoncelli, “Image quality assessment: From error visibility to structural similarity,” IEEE Trans. on Image Processing, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 600-612, Apr. 2004.

[18] I. E. Richardson, “The H.264 advanced video compression standard”, II Edition, Wiley, 2010.

[19] D. S. Taubman and M. W. Marcellin, "JPEG2000 – Image compression fundamentals, standards, and practice," Kluwer, 2001.