Antimethanogenic plants for grazing systems
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Antimethanogenic plants for grazing systems. Durmic, Z. (UWA) Revell, D., Ramírez-Restrepo, C. (CSIRO) Moate , P. (DPI Vic) Ghamkhar, K., Vercoe, P. (UWA). Why do herbivores produce GHG?.

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Antimethanogenic plants for grazing systems

Durmic, Z. (UWA)

Revell, D., Ramírez-Restrepo, C. (CSIRO)

Moate, P. (DPI Vic)

Ghamkhar, K., Vercoe, P. (UWA)


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Why do herbivores produce GHG?

Herbivores have evolved to consume large quantities of plants and can transform poor quality food (grass) into high quality products (meat and milk).

Cellulose

Meat, milk


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Methane emissions from livestock

FoodEnergy

Methane

CO2

Fermentation


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Methane emissions from livestock

  • mechanism of removing hydrogen from the rumen

Substrate

Fermentation

VFA (energy)

CO2 +4H2

CH4 + 2H2O

CO2

H2

H2

H2

H2

CH4

H2

H2O

H2O


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Methane emissions from livestock


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Reducing methane from livestock

  • dietary, i. e. increasing feed quality (grain)


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Reducing methane from livestock

  • dietary, i. e. increasing feed quality (grain) = expensive, impact on the environment


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Reducing methane from livestock

  • dietary, i. e. increasing feed quality (grain)

  • feed supplements (i.e. antibiotics)


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Reducing methane from livestock

  • dietary, i. e. increasing feed quality (grain)

  • feed supplements (i.e. antibiotics) = antibiotic resistance, becoming ineffective


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Reducing methane from livestock

  • dietary, i. e. increasing feed quality

  • feed supplements (i.e. antibiotics)

  • vaccine?


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Reducing methane from livestock

  • dietary, i. e. increasing feed quality

  • feed supplements (i.e. antibiotics)

  • vaccine = ineffective, expensive, side-effects


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Reducing methane from livestock

– novel approaches

  • Some novel, safer, long-term and more effective approaches:

  • breeding for low-methane animals

  • ‘bioactive’ plants and secondary compounds

  • novel and natural feed additives


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Reducing methane from livestock

– novel approaches

  • Some novel, safer, long-term and more effective approaches:

  • breeding for low-methane animals

  • ‘bioactive’ plants and secondary compounds

  • novel and natural feed additives


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‘Bioactive’ plants may affect methane output?

  • Methane is produced by microbes

  • Plant contain secondary compounds (PSC)

  • Many ‘bioactvie’ (antimicrobial)

  • I.e. tannins - antimethanogenic


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Why AM plants may be a solution for Australia?

  • Part of a normal animal diet

  • Our production systems are forage-based

  • Great plant diversity in Australia

  • Harsh environment = more PSC = more ‘bioactive’


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Why AM plants may be a solution for Australia?

Plant antimethanogenic potential – EU vs AU

EU ‘Replace’ AU ‘Enrich’

no reduction

5-25% reduction

>25% reduction

100 plants

30 active

500 plants

6 active


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Why plants may be a solution for Australia?

Other benefits:

  • can help transform landscapes

  • provide out of season fodder, provide shelter for the animals

  • retain water, absorb salt, prevent soil erosion, wind break


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UWA Research farm

30 Jan 2011


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UWA Research farm

31 Jan 2011


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UWA Research farm

31 Jan 2011


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Why plants may be a solution for Australia?

‘BEFORE’

Monarto (SA) Badgingarra (WA)


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Why plants may be a solution for Australia?

AFTER

Monarto (SA) Badgingarra (WA)


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2005-2008

ENRICH 1 - Multi-purpose ‘healthy’ grazing systems using perennial shrubs

2008-2010

ENRICH 2 - Building functional and resilient systems with forage shrubs

2009-2011

Antimethanogenic bioactivity of Australian plants for grazing systems

2010

Variation for in  vitro methane production in pasture legumes with particular focus on subterranean clover.

2009-2012

Using bioactive secondary plant compounds for improving health and function in grazing ruminants

2011 - 2015

Exploiting the subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.) genome to meet future challenges for Australian livestock industries - climate change mitigation and ruminant health.


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Tropical pastures (beef)

Arid (sheep)

Legumes (sheep)

Pastures (beef)

Novel pastures (dairy)

Arid (sheep)


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Collect plant Test in vitro Identify candidates

material


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Expand the screening

Confirm in vivo

Identify PSC

Variability

Management



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Oaten chaff

  • varied methanogenic potential (4 mL/g – 84 mL/g DM)

  • plants with beneficial profiles identified


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  • varied methanogenic potential (4 mL/g – 51 mL/g DM)


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Lucerne

  • varied methanogenic potential (18 mL/g – 60 mL/g DM)


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  • varied methanogenic potential (36 -57 mL/g DM)


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  • DHA caused small, but significant reduction in methanogenic potential, but only when mixed with a concentrate diet

*


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Artificial rumen

Animal house

Paddock-scale

Confirmation

Dose

Persistence

Effect on microbes

Which ones?

Static/cidal?

Effect on vital functions


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Results from the artificial rumen

  • Methane reduced immediately with addition of 25% EG

  • Gas production was unaffected

  • Effect persisted over 8 days


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Artificial rumen

Animal house

Paddock-scale

Confirmation

Dose

Persistence

Effect on microbes

Which ones?

Static/cidal?

Effect on vital functions


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Summary

  • Variability exists in methanogenic potential amongst forages

  • Differences can be of 10 to 20 times magnitude, however other factors such as plant nutritive and agronomic value, overall fermentability and effect on animal should be taken into account

  • Plants that have strong antimethanogenic potential, but are not suitable as fodder, may be part of a mixed diet or developed as an additive

  • Observation so far are based on in vitro (laboratory) testing, but work is on the way to confirm findings in vivo



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Antimethanogenic plants for grazing systems

More info:

[email protected]


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