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Bricolage as a way to make use of input from users. Lars Fuglsang , 2011. Agenda. Background Bricolage definition Case studies Home care in Amager Ticket Office Development Partnership Conclusions. Background (1/2). Innovation has not one precise definition.

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Presentation Transcript
agenda
Agenda
  • Background
  • Bricolage definition
  • Case studies
    • Home care in Amager
    • Ticket Office
    • Development Partnership
  • Conclusions
background 1 2
Background (1/2)
  • Innovation has not one precise definition.
  • Innovation is considered in real-life circumstances.
  • Innovation is created incrementally with employees involvement.
  • User-based service innovation:
    • ‘bricolage’ employment, where employees solve problems in cooperation with users here and now;
    • difficult to understand how innovation can be derived from occupational practice in stepwise manner.

.

background 2 2
Background (2/2)
  • Bricolage is referred to practice-based theory.
  • Practice-based theory is linked with the concepts:
    • Individuation is “the process whereby the individual is constituted qua integrated unit” (Styhre, 2008b);
    • Meta-stability is temporal condition which is changing with actor’s activity and interactions.
  • Focus on practical implementation;
  • User is not a source of innovation as such.

.

bricolage definition 1 2
Bricolage definition (1/2)
  • Bricolage is a problem-solving activity through which user relationships and user-based innovation can be individuated and become stabilized incrementally.
  • Describes how changes occur in practice.
  • Solving the problem here and now with at hand resources.
  • Reasons for bricolage effectiveness:
    • Complexity and pluralism of modern companies;
    • People want to make changes through their jobs and avoid changes which they do not understand.

.

bricolage definition 2 2
Bricolage definition (2/2)
  • Bricolage was considered in a wide range of studies:
    • E.g., in 1989 explaining how teachers’ work proceeds in an often unprincipled way by improvisation and using the resources at hand.
  • Bricolage can be considered as:
    • Stepwise innovation process in itself;
    • Input for company’s more formal innovation activities.

.

case studies
Case studies
  • Three different cases, but all
    • Include some service innovation;
    • Involve user in innovation process.
  • Conduction of interviews with employees and managers.
  • Goal to describe:
    • Incrementalism of innovation;
    • Bricolage role;
    • Whether incrementalism and bricolage results in meta-stability in innovation process.

.

home care in amager bricolage by front line staff
Home Care in Amager: Bricolage by front-line staff

.

  • Incrementalism
  • Home carers make small adjustments to home care in collaboration with users;
  • A range of reforms are introduced by management.
  • Bricolage
  • True bricolage takes place when home carers solve problems using resources at hand in old people homes.
  • Bricolage is crucial for service provision.
  • Bricolage is also used when reforms are to be introduced.
  • Meta-stability
  • Bricolage is considered as interactive way, in which the organization, its rules and procedures become meta-stable functional units.
ticket office bricolage by entrepreneurial management 1 2
Ticket Office: Bricolage by entrepreneurial management (1/2)
  • Ticket Office – travel agency that sells tickets and hotel rooms to other travel agencies using online booking system.
  • Innovation is based on development of technological resources and ICT expertise.

.

ticket office bricolage by entrepreneurial management 2 2
Ticket Office: Bricolage by entrepreneurial management (2/2)
  • Incrementalism
    • The booking system was already mature technology when it was further developed by Ticket Office;
    • The development was done in small steps.
  • Bricolage
    • Is not true bricolage, because it does not use resources at hand.
    • However, ‘Resources at hand may include ‘resources that are available cheaply or for free, often because judge them to be useless or substandard’ (Baker and Nelson, 2005).
  • Meta-stability
    • Ongoing creation of meta-stability of user’s needs.

.

development partnership bricolage by network governance 1 2
Development Partnership: Bricolage by network governance (1/2)
  • Development Partnership is a public-private innovation network between Danish municipality (Gribskov) and three providers of services for old people including one public and two private ones.
  • Collaboration regarding development and innovation in elderly care facilitated by Momentum.
  • Firstly Momentum’s steering committee tried to come up with new ideas for service innovations. After 2005, Momentum became more market oriented and project organized.
  • Developed projects:
    • An examination of the concept care among old people.
    • Social project that attempted to involve volunteers in care.
    • A project of ‘differentiation’ that identified positive examples of service user differentiation based on staff and user experience.

.

development partnership bricolage by network governance 2 2
Development Partnership: Bricolage by network governance (2/2)
  • Incrementalism
    • Projects apply incremental innovations.
  • Bricolage
    • Not all projects have bricolage (e.g., Care Academy);
    • Spread of knowledge from the projects had the character of bricolage;
    • The way the projects developed and used by the companies specify planned bricolage.
  • Meta-stability
    • Relationships among the service providers and the user as well as some service usersare meta-stable.

.

conclusions
Conclusions
  • User-base service innovation can take place as bricolage.
  • User-planned innovation usually is not intentional and well-planned activity.
  • Deep involvement of users in innovation process.
  • Use of resources at hand.
  • Bricolage can:
    • Directly create service innovations
    • Help to identify opportunities for further user-based innovations.

.

thank you for attention
Thank you for attention!

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