Unit 2: Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, and Kush. Chapter 3: Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent 51-77. Bell Work 9-9. P. TN10 (1-5). Bell Work 9/10 Societal Changes Instructions: List features of the following societies. Leave cities blank and we will come back to it. Characteristics
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Unit 2: Mesopotamia, Ancient Egypt, and Kush Chapter 3: Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent 51-77
Bell Work9-9 • P. TN10 (1-5)
Bell Work 9/10Societal ChangesInstructions: List features of the following societies. Leave cities blank and we will come back to it. Characteristics ____________ Characteristics ______________ Characteristics _______________
Chapter 3: Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent • The first civilizations grew up in river valleys in Asia and Africa. Such valleys provided water and fertile land for farming. In the region of the Tigris and Euphrates river valley, the Sumerians developed the world’s first civilization.
Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent • Early farming villages were not technologically advanced. • As the communities grew more food, their settlements grew in size. What inventions, technology, or organizations would be needed in the community as it grows?
Fertile Crescent Silt Irrigation Canals Surplus Division of Labor Chapter 3: Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent • Rural • Urban • City-State • Gilgamesh • Sargon • Empire • Polytheism • Priests • Social Hierarchy • Cuneiform • Pictographs • Scribe • Epics • Architecture • Ziggurat • Monarch • Hammurabi’s Code • Chariot • Nebuchadnezzar • Alphabet
Civilization A civilization is a society with cities, a central government, workers, who specialize in certain jobs leading to social classes, that has religion, writing, art, and architecture. There is no civilization without agriculture – societies need a stable food supply before they can develop. A civilization is made up of many parts. We will use the acronym G.R.A.P.E.S. to remember them! Geography – Where is the civilization? What sort of crops can they grow? What natural resources do they have? Religion – What do the people believe? How do their beliefs affect their lives? Achievements – What did they contribute to the world? What did they invent? What did they build (architecture)? Politics – What was their government like? Who made the decisions in the society? Economy - -How did the society distribute their resources? Did they trade or use money? What did they sell or trade? What did they need to get from outside of their civilization? Social Structures – What were their social class systems? Who was considered more important in their society? What were their art, music, and recreation like?
Fertile Crescent Mesopotamia Flooding & Silt
Fertile CrescentMesopotamia (land between the rivers) • Draw a quick sketch of the Fertile Crescent with labels. • Fertile Crescent (color this area green) • Asia Minor • Arabian Peninsula • Persian Gulf • Mediterranean Sea • Mesopotamia • Tigris and Euphrates River • Africa P. 55
Farming Community Activity • Part I: Sketch a small farming community in its early stages (color #1) • Add irrigation to your community (color #2) • Add surplus of food to your community (color #3) • Surplus of food leads to a division of labor. Add division of labor (color #4)
Bell WorkHappy Patriots’ Day9/11 • What is the acronym for characteristics of a civilization and what does each letter stands for? • What region did the first civilization choose to settle? • How did Mesopotamians control the floods that destroyed crops, killed livestock, and washed away homes?
Things You Should Have Included in Your Farming Community Sketch • Wood/Mud Houses • Crops • Water Source • Megalith • Water Diverting From the Water Source to Crops • Added Food Sources throughout the community • People in the community doing chores: making pottery, cropping, taming animals, building canals, building homes
How might big construction projects like the building of canals and large buildings lead to laws and government? Farming settlements grew in size and complexity. They gradually developed into cities between 4000 and 3000 BC.
Go Back and fill in characteristics or features of a civilization Characteristics ____________ Characteristics ______________ Characteristics _______________
Quick Review • What is the acronym for characteristics of a civilization and what does each letter stands for? • What region did the first civilizations choose to settle? • How did Mesopotamians control the floods that destroyed crops, killed livestock, and washed away homes? • What lead to the creation of laws and governments?
Bell Work9/12 and 9/13 • Match the following with the correct term from Chapter 3-1 • a mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks • type of arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job • a way of supplying water to an area of land • a large arc of rich, or fertile, farmland • more than needed • between the rivers • human-made waterways • Read pages 58-59. Complete the questions on page 59. Please answer the questions in complete sentences.
Academic Vocabulary Quiz • You will need: • 1 Sheet of Paper • Writing Utensil
Part I- Correctly spell the word given beside the number.Part II: Put the word that correctly matches the definitions below. • - • - • - • - • - • - • - • - • - • - • being the first or earliest of the kind or in existence • growth or progress • a rapid spread or increase in the occurrence of something • a member of the Eskimo peoples inhabiting northernmost North America from northern Alaska to eastern Canada and Greenland • a prominent or conspicuous part or characteristic • the striking of one thing against another; forceful contact; collision • to divide and give out in shares; deal out; allot • mutual relation of two or more things or parts • to introduce something new; make changes in anything established • not influenced by personal feelings, interpretations, or prejudice; based on facts; unbiased
Chapter 3-2The Rise of Sumer (Page 60-64) • Moveable Groups Rules • You may only take your composition books as you move to the next group • You must work together/stay together as you answer the questions in each section • Write your answers in complete sentences • You will have 6 minutes per group/when the music starts to play, it is time to move to the next group (counter-clockwise)/when the music goes off, you should be in a seat
3-2 Moveable Group Questions Chapter 3-2 (60-64) • Group 1-You do not have to write the questions; however, write answers incomplete sentences. • What area in Southern Mesopotamia was known as the world’s first civilization? • Where and how did most Sumerians live? • As cities grew, they formed city-states. What were city-states and how did they get along with each other? • Which Sumerian king became a legendary figure in Sumerian literature? Where was this legendary figure from? • Looking at page 70-71, what was the world’s oldest written epic? • Group 2-You do not have to write the questions; however, write answers incomplete sentences. • What group of people lived north of Sumer and how were they different from the Sumerians? • Though they lived in peace for many years, in the 2300s, the peace broke. Why did the peace break between the Sumerians and the Akkadians? • What was the capital of the Akkadian Empire? • How was Sargon able to build the first empire and how far did it stretch? • On page 62-63, study The City-State of Ur picture and answer the question on page 63. • Group 3-You do not have to write the questions; however, write answers incomplete sentences. • What was the basis of all Sumerian society? • Sumerians were polytheistic. What is polytheism? • What kind of powers did Sumerians believe their gods possessed? • Why did priests gain high status in Sumer? • What is social hierarchy? Another phrase that means social hierarchy is ____________. • Group 4-You do not have to write the questions; however, write answers incomplete sentences. • Explain the social hierarchy in Sumer (upper to lower class). • Trade had a great impact on Sumerian life. What did Sumerians trade? • How was life different for men and women in Sumerian Society? • How did trade affect Sumerian Society? • What was Enhenduanna the first to do? Why might Enheduanna have had an easier time than other women in becoming a writer?
What was Enhenduanna the first to do? Why might Enheduanna have had an easier time than other women in becoming a writer?
Bell Work 9/16Epic of Gilgamesh • Read this Primary Source and answer the questions on page 71.
Picture: Ziggurat at Urp. 51 Mesopotamian temples known as ziggurats served as places of worship and were the largest, most important buildings in their cities. The photo here shows one of the most famous Mesopotamian ziggurats, the ziggurat at Ur. The ruins of the ancient Sumerian temple, believed to have been built in about 2100BC, are located near the present-day city of Nasiriyah, in southeastern Iraq. Attempts at restoring the ziggurat took place in the 1930s, but only the lower level of the temple was restored. What types of technology or knowledge were probably needed to build this temple?