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The History of Rhetoric. Kristen K. Tiscione June 2014. Rhetoric is the art of “discovering in the particular case what are the available means of persuasion.” — Aristotle, Rhetoric (c. 333 BCE). Logic. Rhetoric. the invention and arrangement of ideas that lead to t ruth

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the history of rhetoric
The History of Rhetoric

Kristen K. Tiscione

June 2014

slide2
Rhetoric is the art of “discovering in the particular case what are the available means of persuasion.”

—Aristotle, Rhetoric (c. 333 BCE)

slide3
Logic

Rhetoric

the invention and arrangement of ideas that

lead to truth

(the philosopher)

the invention, arrangement, and expression of ideas that lead to probable truth

(the politician, lawyer)

the trivium
The Trivium

Grammar Logic Rhetoric

The art of inventing The art of The art of

and combining symbols thinking communication

to communicate

ramism
Ramism

beauty

style

Logic – invention

arrangement

Rhetoric – invention

arrangement

expression

rhetoric disappears as a school subject
Rhetoric disappears as a school subject
  • Writing (English)
    • Literature –

(how to read)

    • Composition

(how to write)

  • Speaking (Speech)
    • Rhetorical criticism

(how to evaluate speech)

    • Speech

(how to speak)

impact on legal education
Impact on legal education

Doctrinal – invention

Courses arrangement

true principles of law

(theory)

scientific case method

Legal– expression

Writing

Courses

+

invention

arrangement

(practice)

invention in legal writing
Invention in Legal Writing
  • the holding of a case
  • synthesized legal rules
  • analogies
no true law
No “true” law

Q: What is negligence?

A: It depends . . . on the jurisdiction, the case law, the lawyer who interprets it, and the judge who applies it.

what does this all mean for us
What does this all mean for us?
  • Ramus was wrong: theory and practice are inseparable –
    • Ideas and knowledge cannot exist in society outside their expression
  • Aristotle was wrong: all knowledge is probable and a product of the rhetorical process
    • Rhetoric uses logic and grammar to produce knowledge
law is the product of rhetoric
Law is the product of rhetoric

Administrators

Legislators

Regulators LAW

Constituencies

Judges

Advocates

Parties

Scholars

1nvention

arrangement +

expression

teaching law as rhetoric
Teaching law as rhetoric

If law is a function of rhetoric, rhetorical theory helps us understand

the lawmaking process

how to persuade and participate in the process

how to teach the process, and

how to teach it better

using rhetorical theory and method to study legal communication
Using Rhetorical Theory and Method to Study Legal Communication

KIRSTEN k. Davis

June 2014

rhetoric kirsten s definition
Rhetoric: Kirsten’s Definition
  • The ability to
    • use or
    • understand how others use
    • symbols to
      • reason from shared assumptions,
      • increase identification between “speaker” and “audience,” and
      • inspire an audience to take action or change attitudes.
      • More definitions: http://www.americanrhetoric.com/rhetoricdefinitions.htm
rhetorical theory and method
Rhetorical Theory and Method
  • Rhetorical Theory: A body of thought about human symbol use.
  • Rhetorical Method: Using rhetorical theory to ask questions about “how communication constructs a specific understanding of the world.”
applying rhetorical theory is humanistic inquiry
Seeks to explain:
    • Agency of speakers
    • Roles of symbols in the human world
    • Power of audience to co-construct reality
  • Humanistic, not scientific:
    • Not looking for objective truth—reality is not a distinct object to be “discovered”
    • Looking to understanding the meaning humans assign—reality is a product of humans interactively creating knowledge in context.
Applying rhetorical theory is humanistic inquiry.

Or Is It?

rhetorical theory is a lens for looking at legal communication as a rhetorical situation
Symbol (of Law)

[Legal] Context and Constraints

Speaker

Audience

A speaker uses symbols of the law to persuade an audience to take action. The action of the audience is constrained. All of this takes place in a context.

Inducing Action

Responding to Need

Need

Rhetorical theory is a lens for looking at legal communication as a rhetorical situation.
two main areas for using rhetorical theory and method to analyze legal communication
Two Main Areas for Using Rhetorical Theory and Method to Analyze Legal Communication

Production (Instructive)

Reception (Instructive, Critical)

Construct messages more consciously.

Write better.

Speak better.

Teach better.

Receive messages more consciously.

As a lawyer: read/listen better.

As a scholar/ “special citizen”: critically assess legal messages.

why rhetorical theory for legal communication
Why Rhetorical Theory for Legal Communication?
  • Improve
    • teaching and develop expertise.
    • production and reception of legal communication.
    • understanding of how legal language works by standing “outside” the law to make better sense of law as language.
  • Examine
    • ethics of legal communication as well as effectiveness.
  • Create
    • The legal community we want by theorizing the practice of law.
applying rhetorical theory the researcher s choices
Applying Rhetorical Theory: The Researcher’s Choices

What will be the focus of study? The speaker, audience, patterns, strategies?

What is the perspective (method) the scholar will take?

What is the judgment the scholar wishes to make (descriptive, interpretive, evaluative)?

What kind of insight will be gained from the study?

rhetorical theory is applied through methodological perspectives
Rhetorical Theory Is Applied Through Methodological Perspectives

Neoaristotelian

Metaphor

Narrative

Fantasy Theme

Dramatistic

Genre

Ideographic

Ideological

Generative

Feminist

Sociological

Social Movement

dramatism cluster analysis
Dramatism: Cluster Analysis

Generally

Method

Action is motivated. Language is symbolic action. Symbol choices reveal motivation.

Looking for how symbols “hang together”

“What goes with what”

  • Key symbols
    • Frequency
    • Intensity
  • Associational Clusters
    • Proximity
    • Cause/effect
    • Connectedness
    • Opposing terms
dramatism pentadic analysis
Dramatism: Pentadic Analysis

The idea

The Pentad

Symbolic structures have five interacting elements.

Meaning changes depending on the relationship between those elements.

Pentad allows systematic exam of the “strategic moments” in symbol use.

pentadic ratios
Pentadic Ratios

Scene Determines Act

Act Defines Agent

At a little after the restaurant’s closing time, Ms. Jones found herself alone in an unlit alley. That was when Mr. Smith rushed toward Ms. Jones from an area obscured by empty liquor crates.

While walking home after a late dinner at a local restaurant, Mr. Smith saw Ms. Jones, a tenant in his apartment building, and he attempted to escort her home.

metaphor analysis
Metaphor Analysis

Generally

Metaphor Parts

http://flowtv.org/2013/01/what%E2%80%99s-in-a-metaphor-abortion-rhetoric/

Tenor: Abortion

Vehicle: Terrorism

The way in which we know our reality through language.

An argument for a particular view of the world.

The “vehicle” frames the “tenor.”

law is rhetoric
Law is Rhetoric

Julie A. Oseid

University of St. Thomas School of Law

Minneapolis, MN

[email protected]

thomas jefferson metaphor
Thomas Jefferson - metaphor

Aristotle

Michael Smith and Linda Berger

judges
Judges

The Four

James Boyd White

rhetoric and teaching
Rhetoric and Teaching

I (and maybe you, too?) was a rhetoric scholar and teacher

and didn’t really realize it . . .

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