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LSP. Stéphane Ducasse --- 2005. A step deeper in Subtyping. Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP).

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## LSP

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**LSP**Stéphane Ducasse --- 2005**Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP)**• if for each object o1 of type S there is another object o2 of type T such that for all programs P defined in terms of T, the behavior of P is unchanged when o1 is substituted for o2, then S is a subtype of T. • Barbara Liskov, "Data Abstraction and Hierarchy," SIGPLAN Notices, 23,5 (May 1988)**A Simple Bag**• We will define a Bag as an object that accepts two messages: put and count • (send a-Bag 'put x) • puts an element x into the Bag, and • (send a-Bag 'count x) • gives the count of occurrences of x in the Bag (without changing a-Bag's state).**A Simple Set**• Likewise, a Set is defined as an object that accepts two messages: • (send a-Set 'put x) • puts an element x into a-Set unless it was already there, • (send a-Set 'count x) • gives the count of occurrences of x in a-Set (which is always either 0 or 1).**A Bag Function**• (define (fnb bag) • (send bag 'put 5) • (send bag 'put 5) • (send bag 'count 5)) • The behavior of this function can be summed as follows: given a Bag, the function adds two elements into it and returns • (+ 2 (send orig-bag 'count 5))**The problem**• Technically you can pass to fnb a Set object as well. Just as a Bag, a Set object accepts messages put and count. However applying fnb to a Set object will break the function's post-condition • Therefore, passing a set object where a bag was expected changes behavior of some program. According to the Liskov Substitution Principle (LSP), a Set is not substitutable for a Bag -- a Set cannot be a subtype of a Bag.**Another function**• (define (fns set) • (send set 'put 5) • (send set 'count 5)) • The behavior of this function is: given a Set, the function adds an element into it and returns 1.**Problem two**• If you pass to this function a bag (which -- just as a set -- replies to messages put and count), the function fnsmay return a number greater than 1. This will break fns's contract, which promised always to return 1.**Finally**• Therefore, from the OO point of view, neither a Bag nor a Set are a subtype of the other. • Bag and Set only appear similar. The interface or an implementation of a Bag and a Set appear to invite subclassing of a Set from a Bag (or vice versa). Doing so however will violate the LSP -- and you have to brace for very subtle errors. • Sets and Bags are very simple types, far simpler than the ones you deal with in a production code. either. It's manual work -- you have to see the problem**Watch out**• Alas, LSP when considered from an OOP point of view is undecidable. • You cannot count on a compiler for help in pointing out an error. You cannot rely on regression tests**In C++**• typedef int const * CollIterator;// Primitive but will do • class CBag { • public: • int size(void) const;// The number of elements in the bag • virtual void put(const int elem);// Put an element into the bag • int count(const int elem) const;// Count the number of occurrences • // of a particular element in the bag • virtual bool del(const int elem); // Remove an element from the bag • // Return false if the element • // didn't exist • CollIterator begin(void) const;// Standard enumerator interface • CollIterator end(void) const; • CBag(void); • virtual CBag * clone(void) const;// Make a copy of the bag • private: • // implementation details elided • };**CSet**• class CSet : public CBag { • public: • bool memberof(const int elem) const { return count(elem) > 0; } • // Overriding of CBag::put • void put(const int elem) • { if(!memberof(elem)) CBag::put(elem); } • CSet * clone(void) const • { CSet * new_set = new CSet(); *new_set += *this; return new_set; } • CSet(void) {} • };**Summary**• Subtyping...

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