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Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mission. Particles and Fields Science Critical Design Review May 23 -25, 2011 Dave Mitchell SWEA Lead. MAVEN Science Questions.

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slide1

Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mission

Particles and Fields Science

Critical Design Review

May 23 -25, 2011

Dave Mitchell SWEA Lead

maven science questions
MAVEN Science Questions

MAVEN will determine the role that loss of volatiles to space has played through time, providing definitive answers about Mars climate history:

  • What is the current state of the upper atmosphere and what processes control it?
  • What is the escape rate at the present epoch and how does it relate to the controlling processes?
  • What has the total loss to space been through time?
maven mission architecture
MAVEN Mission Architecture

In situ and semi-global remote sensing measurements are made from the MAVEN elliptical orbit.

Measurements are obtained down to the well-mixed lower atmosphere through five “deep dip” campaigns.

Coverage of all local solar times and most latitudes, along with broad geographical coverage, results from precession of the MAVEN high-inclination orbit.

maven measures drivers reservoirs and escape rates
MAVEN Measures Drivers, Reservoirs, and Escape Rates

SWEA

SWEA

SEP

EUV

NGIMS

MAG

MAG

IUVS

IUVS

Neutral Processes

Solar Inputs

Plasma Processes

LPW

LPW

SWIA

SWIA

STATIC

the maven payload makes the essential measurements
The MAVEN Payload Makes the Essential Measurements

NGIMS

IUVS

LPW

integrated analysis

integrated analysis

STATIC

MAG, SWEA, SWIA, LPW

SEP

LPW - EUV

static measurement requirements
STATIC Measurement Requirements

STATIC measures low- and medium-energy ion composition, energy, and direction:

Densities, velocities, and temperatures of suprathermal H+, O+, O2+, and CO2+ above the exobase with the ability to spatially resolve magnetic cusps

Derived Level 3 measurement requirements:

swea measurement requirements
SWEA Measurement Requirements

SWEA measures properties of solar wind electrons that can drive escape:

Energy distributions of solar wind, magnetosheath, and ionospheric electrons to determine the electron impact ionization rate, with an energy resolution sufficient to distinguish ionospheric photoelectrons from solar wind electrons

Electron angular distributions to determine magnetic topology, with the ability to spatially resolve magnetic cusps.

Derived Level 3 measurement requirements:

swia measurement requirements
SWIA Measurement Requirements

SWIA Measures properties of solar wind ions that can drive escape:

Density and velocity distributions of solar wind and magnetosheath ions to determine the charge exchange rate and the bulk plasma flow from solar wind speeds down to stagnating magnetosheath speeds

Derived Level 3 measurement requirements:

cross calibration of static swea swia
Cross Calibration of STATIC/SWEA/SWIA

Response to RFAs 9 and 10

  • The angular and energy responses and the geometric factor (minus detection efficiency) for all three instruments are determined on the ground to within ~10% by calibrations and electrostatic optics simulations.
  • Detection efficiency depends on MCP efficiency, which varies during the mission  need a procedure to measure and track this efficiency for all three instruments.

New Level 3 Requirements

cross calibration of static swea swia1
Cross Calibration of STATIC/SWEA/SWIA

Response to RFAs 9 and 10

  • Detection efficiency for STATIC:
    • Determine START and STOP efficiencies by measuring event ratios:

(START with STOP)Validand (STOP with START)Valid

STARTValidSTOPValid

    • This can be done anywhere that the ion composition is dominated by a single species (e.g., H+ in the outer sheath, O2+ in the ionosphere).
    • For cross calibration of SWIA and SWEA, efficiencies for H+ are needed.
  • STATIC can meet requirement without cross calibration.
    • Consistency check: Measure total plasma density near periapsis and compare with calibrated LPW measurements.
cross calibration of static swea swia2
Cross Calibration of STATIC/SWEA/SWIA

Response to RFAs 9 and 10

  • Absolute sensitivity of SWIA determined by cross calibration with STATIC in the outer sheath
    • Instruments have the same analyzer optics and overlapping energy and angle ranges, so measurements of ion flux are sufficient for comparison.
  • Absolute sensitivity of SWEA determined by cross calibration with SWIA and STATIC in the outer sheath and with SWIA in the solar wind.
    • Modeling of total density needed in the sheath for all three.
    • Modeling of total density needed for SWEA in the solar wind.
sep measurement requirements
SEP Measurement Requirements

SEP Measures solar energetic particle input into upper atmosphere:

Solar energetic particles that can interact with the upper atmosphere, with a time resolution sufficient to capture SEP events.

Derived Level 3 measurement requirements:

mag measurement requirements
MAG Measurement Requirements

MAG measures solar-wind interactions and “mini-magnetospheres”

Vector magnetic field in the unperturbed solar wind, magnetosheath, and crustal magnetospheres, with the ability to spatially resolve crustal magnetic cusps.

Derived Level 3 measurement requirements:

lpw measurement requirements
LPW Measurement Requirements

LPW shall measure electron temperature and number density measured in situ:

Thermal electron density and temperature from the ionospheric main peak to the nominal ionopause with a vertical resolution of one O2+ scale height.

LPW shall measure electric field wave power

at frequencies important for ion heating.

Derived Level 3 measurement requirements:

lpw euv measurement requirements
LPW/EUV Measurement Requirements

EUV shall measure solar EUV input into upper atmosphere:

Solar EUV irradiance at wavelengths important for ionization, dissociation, and heating of the upper atmosphere with a time resolution sufficient to capture solar flares.

Derived Level 3 measurement requirements:

pf measurement resiliency
PF Measurement Resiliency

If we lose any one instrument, do we lose any high-level objectives?

(Y = Yes, S = Substantial, P = Partial, N = Not significant, - = Minimal contribution)

PF