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Presentation by Taiga Wanyanja - Centre : MATESO-KE 10/12/2012 KEEPING SAFE WHEN PREVENTING TORTURE & REHABILITATING SURVIVORSMERINA HOTELYAOUNDE CAMEROON
HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS (HRDS) AT RISK: Human Rights Defenders often face harassment, detention, torture, defamation, suspension from their employment, denial of freedom of movement and difficult in obtaining legal recognition for their association, on extreme HRDS are killed ,abducted or disappeared. • All human rights defenders face risks • Not all HRDs are equal in front of risks • Risks depend on the political context • The political context changes ,it is dynamic . Assessing Risks Risk= Threats x vulnerabilities Capacities • Threats are the possibility that someone will harm somebody else physical or moral integrity or property through purposely and often violent action. • In order to reduce risks to acceptable levels-namely, to protect yourself ,must • Reduce threats • Reduce vulnerability factors • Increase protection capacities
HUMAN RIGHTS DEFENDERS (HRDS) AT RISK -Targeting -Crime -Indirect threats Ways of reducing vulnerability -Situational analysis-Threat assessment RISK= Threats x Vulnerability Capacities Enhancing and developing capacities
Threats • some people who make threats ultimately pose a threat • many people who make threats do not pose a threat; • some people who never make a threat do not pose a threat
Assessing threat • To get as much information as possible about the purpose and source of the threat (both will be linked to the impact of your work) • To reach a reasoned and reasonable conclusive about whether the threat will be acted on or not. • To decide what to do. • Establish the facts • Establish the pattern over time • Establish the objective • Establish the source • Draw a reasoned and a reasonable conclusive about the feasibility of the threat
Security incidents? A factor or event which you think could affect your personal or organizational security. Dealing with security incidents; • Register them • Analyze them • React to them
A: Severity Grenade thrown at the office C4 Right after office raid Legal Office raid: Top secret info taken C3 Once – just before public audience • C2 • Twice this year • At no specifically • Critical moment Legal Office Raid: Public info only taken Office Surveillance by visible car C1 Daily – same car and time B: Frequency / Timing
Probability of imminent more severe action against HRD from potential aggressor Very low (A1 office surveillance by visible + B1 daily same car and time Low (A2 legal office raid: public information only taken +B2 twice this year at no specifically critical Moment) High: (A3 legal office raid; top secret information taken (top secret witness names taken) + B3 once just before public audience. Very high: (A4: grenade thrown at the office + B4: Right after office raid C3)
Preventing and Reacting to aggression: • Act against the threat and vulnerabilities and capacities • Be careful-reduce your exposure • Seek effective protection • Seek community protection. • Initiate surveillance and counter surveillance.
A Security Strategy: • Responsiveness • Adaptability • Sustainability • Effectiveness • Reversibility
Ways of dealing with risks: • Accept the risk • Reduce the risk • Share the risk • Defer the risk • Ignore the risk
Security and Defenders work space Persuasion Deterrence b a Work space Tolerance Acceptance
Security plan A security plan is aimed at reducing risk: Has to be implemented on at least three levels. • The individual level • The organizational level • The inter-organizational level It has three objectives: • Reducing the level of threat you are experiencing • Reducing your vulnerabilities • Improving your capacities A security plan should include day-to-day policies, measures and protocols for managing specific situations. Day-to-day policy and measures for routine work. • Permanent advocacy, networking, codes of ethics, culture of security, security management • Permanent measures to ensure that torture work is done in accordance with security standards
Responsibilities & resources for implementing the plan: • Include security factors routinely into your schedule • Regular and analyze security incidents • Allocate responsibilities • Allocate resources Draft the plan; • Select the threats • List relevant vulnerabilities • List relevant capacities
Preventive protocols • for example on how to prepare a press conference or a visit to a remote area. • Emergency protocols for reaching to specific problems, such as detention or disappearance.
IMPROVING SECURITY AT WORK AND AT HOME: Prevent unauthorized access • The office location • Neighborhood; Relationships • Accessibility; Basic services • Street lighting; Susceptibility to Accidents or natural risks • Physical structure; Far vehicles( parking) • Third-party access to the office: physical barriers and visitor procedures. • Technical measures :lighting &alarm ,video cameras • Admission procedure, files –keep track or the package. Checklist-General office security procedures • Keys • Admission procedure • Regular inspection of office security
IMPROVING SECURITY AT WORK AND AT HOME : Mobile phones • Do not keep information of such sensitive names/numbers or messages in your phones. Physical security of information in the office • Keep the office locked at all times including doors and windows • Use keys that require specific authorization • Do not give the keys to third parties • Burn the waste paper
IMPROVING SECURITY AT WORK AND AT HOME Mobile phones • Do not keep information of such sensitive names/numbers or messages in your phones. Physical security of information in the office • Keep the office locked at all times including doors and windows • Use keys that require specific authorized • Do not give the keys to third parties • Burn the waste paper
IMPROVING SECURITY AT WORK AND AT HOME Basic computer file security • Lock computer away when leaving the office • Turn computer screen away from windows • Use surge protection for all power outlets • Keep back-up information, including paper files, in a secure, separate location on an encrypted computer hard drive with a secure dale back-up organization on secured by sophisticated physical locks • To stop an access to your computer, passphrase-protect/shut off as you leave it. • Encrypt your files • Keep the encrypted back-ups away from your office in a safe place. • Use external server to backup your on internet • Buy a computer from a trusted source, flaterit (reformat the hard drive. Only allow hustled technicians to service your computer and watch them all times • Unplug your computer/modem when leaving the machines unattended
IMPROVING SECURITY AT WORK AND AT HOME: SAFE MAILLING; • Never open an email from someone you don’t know • Never forward an email from someone you don’t know • Never download or open an attachment unless you know what it contains and that it is secure. • Don’t use HTML/MIME or rich text in your email-only plain text • Encrypt your email whenever possible • Use meaningful subject lines so the reader knows that’s intended. Safer office management • Being conscious of your information and who has access to it • Developing safe habits and using them consistently. • Using the tools properly
IMPROVING SECURITY AT WORK AND AT HOME Internet security problem • Use a good antivirus program and keep up to date with automatic antivirus updating(check out the virus information library at ww.vil.nai.com • A good firewall can help you appear invisible to hackers and keep out intruders trying to get into you r system • A key logger system can track every keystroke you make • An email address can be spoofed(faked)or used by someone other than the true owner • Keep your browsing activity private by not accepting cookies and by deleting your cache after every time you use the web • Upgrade all web browsers to support bit of encryption. • Software administration
ASSESSING ORGANISATIONAL SECURITY PERFORMANCE Acquired Security Experience and cohesion Evaluating security and protection management Security Training Analyzing and reacting security incidents Security awareness And attitude Degree of Ownership of security rules / compliance Security Planning Assignment of responsibilities
Threats /consequences linked to searches A search generates threats /consequences • The threat that during a search somebody may suffer physical or psychological harm • The threat that the information may be taken away ,lost or destroyed • Related to that the information may be used inappropriately by a third party • The threat that contentious objects may be hidden( arms drugs, documents) in order later to proceed ‘legally’ against the organization • The threat /consequences or money and specific properties ( such as computers ) being stolen or destroyed. Secure management of information prevention procedure • Source –information collection ,at meeting point • Transfer of the information • Processing and storage • Distribution
Threats /consequences linked to searches Incase information is taken or stolen • Immediately inform people at the organization • Access the quantity and sensitivity of the information lost or stolen • Inform other institution affected • Inform the authorities and report the event • Set in any other steps needed to avoid damage.
General strategy in the protection of defenders includes: Protection and security capacity building and training • Risk assessment ,security/protection management • Transfer of knowledge and tools Protection research • Study and elaboration of protection • Publication of information Protection advocacy • Distribution of information on protection among HRD and stakeholders • Promotion of debates and action to protect HRD Protective videos • Portraits of Human Rights Defenders Protection desk • Use HRD network
References: To find out about Human Rights Defenders visit • www.frontlinedefenders .org • www.protectionline.org • unhchr.ch/defenders/about.htm. • www.amnesty.org • The protection manual by Enrique Eguren and Maria Caraj Thank you for your time. Taiga Wanyanja-Coordinator-MATESO Tel.+254 55 30248 Fax.+254 55 30248 email@example.com