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Learning. Say what ?. Result : “ Learned ”. 3 levels in “I have learned that ” Knowledge means the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of work or study. It is described as theoretical and/or factual knowledge

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learning

Learning

Saywhat?

result learned
Result: “Learned”
  • 3 levels in “I have learnedthat”
    • Knowledge means the body of facts, principles, theories and practices that is related to a field of work or study. It is described as theoretical and/or factual knowledge
    • Skills means the ability to apply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems. They are described as
      • cognitive (logical, intuitive and creative thinking)
      • or practical (involving manual dexterity and the use of methods, materials, tools and instruments)
    • Competence means the proven ability to use knowledge, skills and personal, social and methodological abilities in work or study situations and in professional and personal development. It is described in terms of responsibility and autonomy
knowledge bloom taxonomy
Knowledge: Bloomtaxonomy
  • Knowledge  Being able to recall and pass on information as precisely as possible.
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Arrange, define, describe, duplicate, identify, label, list, match, memorize, name, order, outline, recognize, relate, recall, repeat, reproduce, select, state
  • Comprehension  Being able to interpret information and relate and summarize it in one's own words
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Classify, convert, defend, describe, discuss, distinguish, estimate, explain, express, extend, generalize, give example(s), identify, indicate, infer, locate, paraphrase, predict, recognize, review, rewrite, select, summarize, translate
  • Application  Being able to apply abstractions (rules, methods, etc.) in concrete situations
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Calculate, demonstrate, develop, interpret, judge, modify, organize, predict, select, sketch, transfer
  • Analysing:  Being able to break down ideas or problems into simpler parts and compare
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Analyse, appraise, compare, conclude, determine, discriminate, experiment, illustrate, infer, test
  • Evaluating Being able to compile component ideas into a new whole
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Argue, assess, compare, decide, evaluate, predict, recommend, summarize, validate
  • Creating  Being able to make a qualified judgement
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Argue, arrange, expand, relate, generalize, generate, combine, join
cognitive skills
Cognitiveskills
  • Attention Skills  A student’s ability to attend to incoming information
  • Memory  The ability to store and recall information
  • Logic and Reasoning  The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures.
  • Auditory Processing  The ability to analyze, blend, and segment sounds.
  • Visual Processing  The ability to perceive, analyze, and think in visual images.
  • Processing Speed   The ability to perform simple or complex cognitive tasks quickly.  
practical skills dave 1970 simpson 1972
Practical Skills: Dave (1970) & Simpson (1972)
  • Imitation  The ability to observe and imitate the behaviour of another person
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Perform under supervision
  • Manipulation The ability to reproduce actions from instructions and practice
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Perform, participate, assist – according to instructions
  • Precision Perform a task autonomously
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Implement, handle, complete, perform – autonomously
  • Articulation The ability to coordinate and modify several actions by combining several skills in order to meet special requirements or solve a problem
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Adapt, develop, design, alter, coordinate
  • Naturalization: The internalizing of processes: skills are combined consistently and can be performed "without thinking"
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Adapt, adjust, transfer
a ffective domain krathwohl 2002
Affective domain (Krathwohl, 2002)
  • Receiving Willingness to note information
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Listen, show, hold in esteem
  • Responding  Voluntary, active participation in learning/working; e.g. participation in group discussions
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Support, participate, practise, cooperate, integrate
  • Valuing  Ability to judge the worth of material against stated criteria
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Question, adapt to, take into consideration
  • Organization of values  Individual processing of (often conflicting) values to form an organized structure, beginning of an internalization of these values
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Differentiate, judge, dispute, organize
  • Characterization by value set  the individual has a stable system of values regarding convictions, opinions and attitudes which steer her/his behaviour predictably and consistently
    • Examples of active verbs at this level: Recognize, accept, answer, solve
example formulating learning outcomes
Example: formulatinglearningoutcomes
  • Knowledge:
    • He/she is able to
      • ... describe structural characteristics which are responsible for the behaviour and properties of a chemical substance
      • ... differentiate between separation and mix principles and corresponding procedures
      • ... describe the functioning of components, assemblies and systems of a vehicle
      • ... assign the necessary documents for service and maintenance
      • ... explain regulations concerning the handling of hazardous substances
  • Skills:
    • He/ she is able to
      • ... receive orders and plan own procedural steps
      • ... analyse data and present it as a basis for decisions
      • ... use information and communication technologies taking into account data protection requirements
      • ... develop a marketing plan and use marketing and PR instruments
      • ... select chemical agents and production procedures and make up formulas
  • Competence (in the sense of taking over responsibility and autonomy):
    • He/ she is able to
      • ... calculate production and service costs and analyse profitability
      • ... apply problem solving strategies
      • ... reflect upon his/her own action
      • ... cope with and withstand strain and stressful situations in a way that is not harmful to health
      • ... communicate with appreciation with patients, family members/reference person groups involved in the care process
      • ... express and receive situation-based criticism
cognitive skills attention skills
Cognitiveskills: attentionskills
  • One’s ability to attend to incoming information can be observed, broken down into a variety of sub-skills, and improved through properly coordinated training
    • Sustained Attention: The ability to remain focused and on task, and the amount of time we can focus.
    • Selective Attention: The ability to remain focused and on task while being subjected to related and unrelated sensory input (distractions).
    • Divided Attention: The ability to remember information while performing a mental operation and attending to two things at once (multi-tasking).
cognitive skills memory
Cognitiveskills: memory
  • Long-Term Memory:
    • The ability to recall information that was stored in the past.
    • Long-term memory is critical for spelling, recalling facts on tests, and comprehension.
    • Weak long-term memory skills create symptoms like forgetting names and phone numbers, and doing poorly on unit tests.
  • Short-Term / Working Memory:
    • The ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness while simultaneously performing a mental operation.
    • Students with short-term memory problems may need to look several times at something before copying, have problems following multi-step instructions, or need to have information repeated often.
cognitive skills logic reasoning
Cognitiveskills: logic & reasoning
  • The ability to reason, form concepts, and solve problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures. 
  • Deductive reasoning extends this problem-solving ability to draw conclusions and come up with solutions by analyzing the relationships between given conditions.
  • Students with underdeveloped logic and reasoning skills will generally struggle with word math problems and other abstract learning challenges.
  • Symptoms of skill weaknesses in this area show up as questions like, “I don’t get this”, “I need help…this is so hard”, or “What should I do first?” 
cognitive skills auditory processing
Cognitiveskills: auditory processing
  • The ability to analyze, blend, and segment sounds.
  • Auditory processing is a crucial underlying skill for reading and spelling success, and is the number one skill needed for learning to read.
  • Weakness in any of the auditory processing skills will greatly hinder learning to read, reading fluency, and comprehension.
  • Students with auditory processing weakness also typically lose motivation to read. 
cognitive skills visual processing
Cognitiveskills: visual processing
  • The ability to perceive, analyze, and think in visual images.
  • This includes visualization, which is the ability to create a picture in your mind of words or concepts.
  • Students who have problems with visual processing may have difficulty following instructions, reading maps, doing word math problems, and comprehending. 
cognitive skills processing speed
Cognitiveskills: processing speed
  • The ability to perform simple or complex cognitive tasks quickly.
  • This skill also measures the ability of the brain to work quickly and accurately while ignoring distracting stimuli.
  • Slow processing speed makes every task more difficult.
    • Very often, slow processing is one root of ADHD-type behaviors.
  • Symptoms of weaknesses here include homework taking a long time, always being the last one to get his or her shoes on, or being slow at completing even simple tasks.