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shaeleigh-newman

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School as an Organization
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  1. School as an Organization 4th semester, 2013

  2. Pre-discussion Questions • What do you know about an organization? • What are the characteristics of an organization? • What is meant by learning organization? • Why organization should/needs to learn?

  3. Organization • Organization is believed as a invaluable part of community in order to achieve their social goals particularly in rapidly current changing world. • Organization is defined as a group of people (at least two) working together in accomplishing group objectives

  4. Is every group (of people) an organization? • Do you think “two-students working together to complete homework” qualifies as an “Organization”? • Does a group of workers who conduct demonstration belong to “Organization”? • Is a group of students in this classroom called an “Organization”?

  5. What belongs to Organization? • Sondang P. Siagian: “Setiap bentuk persekutuan antara dua orang atau lebih yang bekerja sama untuk suatu tujuan bersama dan terikat secara formal” • Robbin: “Suatu unit sosial yang dikordinasikan dengan sadar, yang tersusun atas dua orang atau lebih, yang berfungsi atas dasar yang relatif terus menerus untuk mencapai suatu tujuan/seperangkat tujuan bersama. • Atmosudirdjo: “Suatu bentuk kerja sama antara sekelompok orang berdasarkan suatu perjanjian untuk bekerja sama guna mencapai tujuan bersama tertentu

  6. What is organizational Aim? • Organizational aims nurture and steer creative tension and release and harness energy; they keep the organization on the move, heading in a certain direction (Everald et.al., p. 144) Dimension of Organization (Everald, et.al. p. 145) Individual Group Organization Network of Organizations Government Deputy Teacher Student Classes Committees Working Parties Schools Colleges Headmaster conference Department of Edu. & Culture

  7. School Organization • As a social system, school encompasses interacted and integrated parts in achieving its goals. • Hoy & Miskel: school contains key components of a formal organization namely: structure, individual, culture, and politics which inter-relate to transform input into output.

  8. INPUT Environment OUTPUT

  9. School as a Learning Organization • Lewis & Romiszowki: “An educational system must be studied as a learning organization in which all members are actively involved in both planning and participating in learning programs adapted to the specific requirements of the changing work or social environments in which they find themselves” • Bischoff: “Organisasi pembelajar adalah organisasi yang mencari untuk menciptakan masa depannya, menjadikan pembelajaran sebagai proses kreatif yang terjadi secara berkesinambungan bagi seluruh anggotanya, mengembangkan, beradaptasi dan mentransformasikan dirinya dalam menjawab kebutuhan serta aspirasi orang-orang didalam maupun diluar organisasi, dan memberi peluang pada seluruh anggota organisasi baik secara individu maupun kolektif untuk terus meningkatkan kapasitasnya dalam berkarya sesuai dengan peran masing-masing dalam organisasi

  10. Belajar dan pembelajaran siswa akan semakin meningkat dan berkualitas apabila seluruh unsur dalam organisasi sekolah melakukan pembelajaran, sehingga kapasitas organisasi sekolah terus-menerus mengalami peningkatan dan perluasan kearah yang lebih baik dan produktif dalam kontek perubahan dewasa ini. • Sebagai lembaga pendidikan tempat terjadinya proses pembelajaran, maka pengelola organisasi sekolah memerlukan kebijakan manajemen dan kepeminpinan yang dapat memberi ruang bagi tumbuh dan kembangnya kreativitas dan inovasi

  11. What is learning Organization (LO)? • LO is defined as a model of learning carried out by an organization • Sweeney & McFarlin: “A firm that values continuous learning and is consistently looking to adapt and change with its environment” • Marquardt: “A company that learns effectively and collectively and continually transform itself for better management and use of knowledge, empower people within and outside of the organization to learn as they work; utilize technology to maximize learning & production”

  12. Other meanings (2) • Senge: “An organization that is continually expanding its capacity to create its future…” • Farago & Skyrme: “LOs are those that have in place system, mechanism and processes that are used to continually enhance their capabilities and those who work with it or for it to achieve sustainable objectives –for themselves and the communities in which they participate”

  13. Why Learning organization? • Why do you think an organization (like school) needs to learn? • In school context, who should learn, students or teaching staff (principals, teachers, & staff)? • Why all members of organization (e.g. principals, teachers, or staff) need to learn?

  14. Why organizations have to learn? • Organizations like schools need to learn to adapt with current rapid development especially relating to information & communication technology (ICT/TIK) • Era TIK ditandai dengan pesatnya perkembangan yang terjadi dalam dua aspek ini yang ditandai dengan ciri-ciri berikut: • Daya muat untuk mengumpulkan, menyimpan memanipulasi dan menyjikan informasi meningkat. • Kecepatan penyajian informasi meningkat • Miniaturisasi perangkat keras • Keragaman pilihan informasi • Menurunnya biaya perolehan informasi • Mudahnya penggunaan produk teknologi informasi • Distribusi informasi yang semakin cepat dan luas • Pemecahan masalah yang lebih baik dan dibuatnya prediksi masa depan yang lebih tepat (Miarso in Warsita, p. 131)

  15. Learning Organization / Organizational LearningOrganisasi Pembelajar / Pembelajaran Organisasi • DeNisi: “OL as …the acquisition of knowledge by individuals and groups who are willing to apply it in their job in making decisions and influencing others to accomplish tasks important for the organization” • Dixon: “The essence of OL is the organization’s ability to use the amazing mental capacity of all its members to create the kind of processes that will improve its own”

  16. Individual Group/Team Organization Community Society/ Nation State World Tingkatan Pembelajaran LO & OL • Pembelajaran organisasi merupakan level pembelajaran sebagai kelanjutan atau perkembangan dari pembelajaran individu, sementara Organisasi pembelajar merupakan suatu kapasitas organisasi dalam proces pembelajaran. • Learning organization tidak mungkin tercipta tanpa adanya ketercapaian pembelajaran organisasi, dan pembelajaran organisasi akan sulit terwujud bila organisasi tidak menghargai aktivitas pembelajaran (LO), sehingga keduanya saling membutuhkan & melengkapi.

  17. Types of Organizational Learning • How do learning processes in organizations occur? • Marquardt: Adaptive learning, anticipatory learning, & Action learning • Klaus: Adaptive learning & Proactive learning • Argyris: Single-loop learning & double-loop learning • Senge: Adaptive learning & Generative learning • Fiol & Lyles: Lower level learning & Higher level learning • Dogson: Tactical learning & Strategic leraning

  18. Adaptive learning, anticipatory learning, & Action learning • Adaptive learning: pembelajaran yang merefleksikan masa lalu dan kemudian memodifikasinya untuk tindakan masa depan • anticipatory learning: proses pemerolehan pengetahuan dari pengembangan masa depan melalui identifikasi kesempatan masa depan terbaik dan menentukan cara bagaimana mencapainya • Action learning: belajar melalui refleksi atas realitas masa kini dan kemudian menerapkan pengetahuan tersebut untuk pengembangan iindividu, kelompok & organisasi.

  19. Adaptive learning & Proactive learning • Adaptive learning: perubahan-perubahan yang dilakukan sebagai reaksi atas kondisi lingkungan yang berubah • Proactive learning: perubahan organisasi yang dilakukan atas dasar keinginan besar lebih dari sekedar reaksi atas perubahan

  20. Adaptive learning & Generative learning • Adaptive learning: pembelajaran yang diarahkan untuk mempertahankan hidup dan beradaptasi dengan lingkungan, • Generative learning: belajar yang meningkatkan kapasitas untuk mencipta

  21. Characteristics of Learning Organization • Senge: Traditional vs. Learning Organization (Look at Table 2.1, p. 39) • Uhar: • menempatkan belajar sebagai sesuatu yang bernilai tinngi serta mengembangkan budaya organisasi yang kondusif bagi proses pembelajaran • Adaptif terhadap lingkungan luar • Terus-menerus meningkatkan kinerja yang adaptif • Bekerja secara kolektif/individual serta berkesinambungan • Memberdayakan pegawai dll

  22. Goals of Learning Organization • Karash: • Because we want superior performance & competitive advantage • For customer relations • To avoid decline • To improve quality • To understand risk & diversity more deeply • For innovation • For our personal and spiritual well being • To increase our ability to manage change • For understanding • Etc.

  23. System thinking Learning Organization Team learning Personal Mastery Shared vision Mental model Learning Components of a Learning organization • Senge identifies 5 components of LO that must be related and integrated.

  24. Performance of school Organization • Hawkins: Performance is a) the process or manner of performing, b) a notable action or achievement, c) the performing of a play or other entertainment. • Kinerja organisasi merupakan sesuatu yang dihasilkan oleh suatu organisasi dalam periode tertentu dengan mengacu pada standar yang ditetapkan. Kinerja organisasi hendaknya merupakan hasil yang dapat diukur dan menggambarkan kondisi empirik suatu organisasi dari berbagai ukuran yang disepakati

  25. Measurement of organizational performance • Measuring the performance of organization comprises 4 perspectives: • Financial perspective • Customer perspective • Internal perspective • Learning & growth perspective

  26. Effective School • Effective school is signaled by its success in accomplishing its goals. From the process perspective, school is effective if it can reach the expected performance such as creating qualified-graduates. • In general, school consists of three main components of “input”, “process” & “output”, and its success will depend on how to organize/manage them.

  27. Measuring effective school • The success of school organization can be measured from its effectiveness, quality, productivity & efficiency. • Effectiveness: To what extent the goals can be achieved (Hasil nyata dibagai hasil yang diharapkan) • Quality: gambaran & karakteristik menyeluruh dari lulusan yang menunjukan kemampuanny dalam memuaskan kebutuhan yang ditentukan • Productivity: perbandingan antara output dibagi input (Quantity) • Efficiency: menunjuk pada hubungan antara input yang tersedia/digunakan dalam menghasilkan output;

  28. Developing effective school • Roe & Norton: pengelolaan program sekolah adalah pengkoordinasian dan penyerasian program sekolah secara holistik dan integratif yang meliputi: • Perencanaan, pengembangan, & evaluasi program • Pengembangan kurikulum • Pengembangan proses belajar mengajar • Pengelolaan SDM • Pelayanan siswa • Pengelolaan fasilitas • Pengelolaan keuangan • Pengelolaan hubungan sekolah-masyarakat • Perbaikan program

  29. Effective school in perspectives • Effective school from the perspective of educational quality • Effective school from the perspective of management • Effective school from the perspective of organizational theory

  30. Effective school from the perspective of educational quality • Hasil pendidikan yang bermutu memiliki nuansa kuantitatif dan kualitatif: di samping ditunjukan oleh indikator seberapa banyak siswa yang berprestasi sebagaimana dilihat dari perolehan nilai/angka, juga ditunjukan oleh seberapa baik kepemilikian kualitas pribadi para siswanya seperti tampak dari kepercayaan diri, kemandirian, kedisiplinan, kerja keras dll.

  31. Effective school from the perspective of management • Managemen sekolah merupakan proses pemanfaatan seluruh SD-Sekolah yang dilakukan secara rasional dan sistematis untuk mencapai tujuan sekolah secara efektif dan efisien • Dari aspek managemen, dimensi sekolah efektif meliputi (Tola & Furkon in Uhar): • Layanan belajar bagi siswa • Pengelolaan dn layanan siswa • Sarana & prasarana sekolah • Program & pembiayaan • Partisipasi masyarakat • Budaya sekolah

  32. Effective school from the perspective of organizational theory • Sekolah efektif mampu mewujudkan apa yang disebut sebagai self-renewing schools” atau “adaptive schools” yaitu suatu kondisi dimana embaga sekolah sebagai suatu entitas mampu menangani permasalahan yang dihadapinya sementara menunjukan kemampuannya dalam berinovasi. • Look at table 2.2, and 2.3 for detailed indicators of effective schools

  33. Agenda for next week! Topic: Atmosphere and culture of school organization Readings: Suharsaputra, U. (2010). Iklim dan Budaya Organisasi Sekolah. Administrasi Pendidikan Bab 3

  34. Group Presentation “School-visit Agenda” discussion will be held March 25, 2013, please be prepared!! Remainder!!!