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BIOHAZARD. Biohazard Defined…. “Those infectious agents presenting a risk of death, injury or illness to employees.”. Two Main Infectious Agents. Viruses Smallest infectious organisms Take over cells, including reproductive mechanisms, and multiply inside of “host” cells

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biohazard defined
Biohazard Defined…

“Those infectious agents presenting a risk of death, injury or illness to employees.”

two main infectious agents
Two Main Infectious Agents
  • Viruses
    • Smallest infectious organisms
    • Take over cells, including reproductive mechanisms, and multiply inside of “host” cells
    • Few viral infections can be treated with anti-viral drugs
  • Bacteria
    • Single-celled microorganisms
    • Produce toxins that damage cells
    • Most bacteria can be treated with drugs
infectious disease
Infectious Disease
  • Developed complacency in 2ND half of 20th century because of successful medications & vaccinations
  • Est. 17 million a year pass away from diseases
  • Bacteria & viruses develop mechanisms to resist drugs
    • They survive and continue to multiply
    • Antibiotics or antiviral medications either kill or inhibit growth
    • Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends using antibiotics only when needed
center for disease control and prevention cdc
Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
  • CDC focuses on disease prevention and control, health promotion and education activities, & environmental health
  • Is the leading federal agency for health & safety, since 1946, and is an agency of the Dept. of Health & Human Services
  • Excellent source for information about diseases
  • www.cdc.gov
main concerns today
TB

HIV

AIDS

Hepatitis

Main Concerns Today
tuberculosis tb
Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis, slow growing organism
  • Not as easy to transmit as the common cold, contracted likely from family & friends
  • Breathing in respirable size water droplets in the air containing the TB virus via coughing, sneezing, & talking, etc.
  • If droplet nuclei reach the alveoli an infection develops
history of tb
History of TB
  • Until mid 1800’s, was thought to be hereditary
  • 1865 Frenchman Jean-Antoine Villenin proved TB is contagious
  • 1882 German scientist Robert Koch discovered the bacteria that causes the TB disease
  • Until the 1940’s & 1950’s people that could afford it were put in sanatoriums
tb history cont
TB History cont.,
  • In 1943 American scientist Seman Woksman discovered Streptomycin drug to kill the TB bacteria
  • Between 1943 & 1952 two more drugs discovered, people were being cured
  • By mid 1970’s sanatoriums were closed
  • Since 1980’s TB is returning, building a resistance to current drugs
tb today
TB Today
  • In 1995, TB killed more than 3 million people worldwide
  • Believed to be 2 billion carriers worldwide
tb stages
TB Stages
  • 1) Latent – dormant, virus becomes active at later stage if untreated, detected by tuberculin skin test
    • Treatment… Isoniazide (9 months), Rifenpin (2 months)
  • 2) Active – contagious, shows up on chest x-ray
    • Treatment… isolation for 1st 2 weeks until chest x-ray is clear, medication for 9-12 months
  • People who have Latent TB are not infectious
tb risks problems
TB Risks & Problems
  • People who are at high risks of contracting TB
    • A.I.D.S & H.I.V.
    • Diabetics & alcoholics
    • People living in high population facilities
    • Smokers (pipe, cigarettes, cigars, marajuana, etc.)
  • TB problems in immigration areas of U.S., people coming from former Soviet Union, etc.
    • Not treated
    • Mistreated
    • Don’t take the medications
sources of infection
Sources of Infection
  • Items caked with dried blood (PPE)
  • Sharps – needles, scalpels, broken glass, etc.
  • Body fluids – semen, vaginal secretions, saliva, etc.
  • Pathological and microbiological wastes
  • Others – eyes, mouth, cuts in skin, body openings
  • Careless behaviors
human immunodeficiency virus h i v
Human immunodeficiency virus (H.I.V.)
  • Attacks & breaks down the body’s immune system
  • Detected by screening test called ELISA, confirmed by Western Blot test, which is 98% accurate
  • Can take from 6-8 weeks to several months to develop antibodies that are detectable in tests
  • Can take up to 10 years for symptoms to develop, some much sooner
hiv cont
HIV cont.,
  • How spread and/or contracted
    • sexual intercourse, transfusions, hypodermic needles, mucous or broken skin sites
  • At risk employees
    • health care workers, public safety (police, fire personnel, etc.)
stages of hiv disease
Stages of HIV Disease

1) Flu-like symptoms; fever, headaches, fatigue, etc.

2) After anti-bodies develop, immune system & body tissues begin to become damaged

3) 1st usual symptoms appear; swelling of the lymph glands in the throat, armpits, or groin areas

4) Serious damage develops; yeast infections & viral infections in anus & genitals, other severe infections

5) AIDS develops

overview history of aids
Overview History of AIDS

1926 – Scientists believe HIV spread from monkeys to humans between 1926 – 1946

1959 – The first proven AIDS death was a Congo man

1978 – Gay men in U.S., Sweden and Haiti begin showing signs of AIDS

1980 – 31 deaths in U.S. from AIDS

1982 – CDC links the disease to blood, President Reagan hasn’t recognized AIDS yet

aids history cont
AIDS History cont.,
  • 1987 – Reagan acknowledges AIDS, V.P. Bush is ridiculed calling for mandatory testing (gay disease)
  • 1988 – 107,000 diagnosed cases of AIDS in U.S., about half of those died
  • 1993 – About 250,000 people have died from AIDS since 1980 in the U.S.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome aids
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  • AIDS is the last stage of the HIV disease
  • White blood cell count is below 200 per milliliter
  • Presence of a severe condition or infection develops
  • Basically waste away, no current cure for AIDS
symptoms of aids
Thrush – white coating around mouth, tongue

Rapid weight loss

Severe diarrhea

Abnormal bruising

Discolored and/or bleeding growths

Deep, dry coughing

Fevers and night sweats

Personality changes

Symptoms of AIDS
aids statistics
AIDS Statistics
  • 36 million currently living with HIV/AIDS worldwide
  • 22 million have passed away since the beginning
  • Last year (2000), 3 million people passed away
hepatitis
Hepatitis
  • Inflammation of the liver disease
  • Types… A, B, C, D, E
  • A, B, & C viruses most common
hepatitis a virus hav
Hepatitis A Virus (HAV)
  • Food borne
  • Preventable
  • Vaccine available, 3 series shot
hav cont
HAV cont.,
  • HAV virus found in stool of persons infected
  • Usually spread by mouth
  • Found in poor sanitary conditions, or where personal hygiene is not good
  • HAV is also found in drinking water and water supplies where stool feces is mixed in
people at risk for hav infections
People at Risk for HAV infections
  • Travelers
  • Share household with someone infected with HAV
  • People who eat in public
  • Men who have sex with other men
  • Children
  • Healthcare professions
symptoms prevention for hav
Symptoms & Prevention for HAV
  • Eyes turn yellow, dark urine, fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, etc.
  • Is most contagious in person before symptoms appear
  • Can get Immune Globulin vaccine
hepatitis b virus hbv
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV)

Blood-borne, not food-borne like HAV

HBV can be a lifelong infection

Is preventable with vaccine, but it is not curable once contracted

Symptoms (6 weeks to 6 months) – fever, chills, joint & muscle pain, abdominal cramps, Jaundice, abdominal cramps

HBV Can cause cirrhosis, liver cancer, and death

Killed more than a million people in 1995

hepatitis c virus hcv
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV)
  • Related to types A & B
  • Blood-borne
  • Ranks 2nd to alcoholics for liver damage, alcohol speeds up progression
  • New, 1992 was the main discovery period, need more time to research
  • No current medication, no cure, leads to early death
    • Interfuron can help some cases
outcomes for a b c viruses
Outcomes for A, B, & C viruses
  • Type A – preventable, curable
  • Type B – preventable, incurable
  • Type C – no vaccine, incurable
suggestions for types a b or c
Suggestions for Types A, B or C
  • Stop drinking alcoholic beverages
  • Avoid medications that are at risk to liver damage
  • Eat well, exercise, and rest
other infectious diseases
Other Infectious Diseases
  • Whooping Cough
    • Develop a series of short, convulsive coughs followed by a whoop
  • Measles
    • Develop small red spots, fever and flu-like symptoms
  • Cholera
    • A severe, contagious infection in the small intestine
  • Salmonella
    • Causes food poisoning
global outlook on public health
Global Outlook on Public Health
  • Population increases
  • Increased # of environmental and political refugees
  • Biosphere’s life-support systems have been disrupted
  • Increased private cars emitting toxins
  • Increased worldwide travel, helps spread disease
regulations
Regulations
  • Applies to one or more employees
  • Bloodborne Pathogens - 29 CFR 1910.1030
    • Exposure Control Plan, required by OSHA
      • Requires employers to identify in writing where occupational exposures to blood occurs
    • Recordkeeping
      • Medical records of an employee who sustained an occupational exposure related to Biohazards, must be kept for the term of employment plus 30 years
  • Hazard Communication – WAC 296-62-054
worker protection
Worker Protection
  • Wash hands thoroughly with antiseptic soap
  • Wear appropriate PPE
    • Gloves, gowns, masks, mouthpieces, etc.
    • Cover exposed cuts, abrasions, wounds, etc.
  • Remove PPE without touching contamination
  • Decontaminate work surfaces with appropriate disinfectant
  • Biohazard warning labels
    • Flourescent orange or orange-red
    • Red bags or containers appropriate substitutes
disposal or cleaning of contaminated materials
Disposal or Cleaning of Contaminated Materials
  • Clothing should be washed at 160 F or higher for at least 25 minutes
  • Store used sharps in puncture resistant, leak-proof container
sources of information
Sources of Information
  • Ann Riley – Director of Health Department
  • Randy Kaiser – Safety and Health at Hospital
  • Class Text
  • Pamphlets at Red Cross Office
  • Internet websites
  • Other books at CWU Library