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Introduction. PLENARY SESSION II: SMART GRIDS AND NETWORK RELIABILITY – FUTURE TECHNOLOGIES Smart grid- Integrating Renewable Generation. Prakash Nayak Chairman Power Panel IET Director Power Engineering & Automation . Agenda. About PEnA About Power System – Evolution and future

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slide1

Introduction

PLENARY SESSION II: SMART GRIDS AND NETWORK RELIABILITY – FUTURE TECHNOLOGIESSmart grid- Integrating Renewable Generation

PrakashNayak

Chairman Power Panel IET

Director Power Engineering & Automation

slide2

Agenda

About PEnA

About Power System – Evolution and future

E- mobility -future transportation

Future Utilities look like…..”

Building tomorrow's grid today- Conclusion

The future grid – Smart Grid

Renewable Energy focus

Renewable Energy focus- India Vision & Mission

Integration of Renewable energy

Integration of Renewable energy - ICT Role

Renewable Integration Model (RIM)

Objectives

Renewable Energy Integration/Connectivity

Renewable Integration Model

Renewable Integration Model results and experience

slide3

What is PEnA

  • Develop a Professional team in Power Automation including Information Communication Technology.  All resources are certified by IET, UK as Chartered Engineer (CEng), Incorporate Engineer (IEng), etc. thereby focusing on enhancement of technical proficiency of the team and become valued partner with companies in supporting them in their engineering and technology needs.
  • Develop renewable energy solutions both grid connected and off-grid connected thereby achieving energy security and creating value to all stakeholders through sustainable development.
  • Be front runner in smart grid initiative i.e. a digitally enabled electrical grid in order to improve Efficiency, Reliability, Economics and Sustainability.

www.pena.co.in

slide4

Evolution of “Power System”

Electricity act2003

Power sector has undergone a rapid revolution and modernization through, enhanced capacity, renewable energy introduction, distributed generation, micro grid etc.

Information Communication Technology( ICT)

Much wider and deeper influence in the operation and maintenance of the power grid encompassing traditional generation, transmission, distribution

Technological changes

The trend of protocols has been refined to be more flexible and accommodating to industrial needs, specifically in the open architecture and matching with high speed communication.

Interoperability improves its interactions with other systems.

slide5

E- mobility -future transportation:

Car manufacturers will continue to demonstrate their commitment to smaller, more fuel efficient and environmentally friendly cars with a focus continues to be price and energy efficiency.

  • Once Electric vehicles will gather a lot of attention consumers before making the decision want to know how quickly and conveniently they would be able to charge an electric vehicle.
  • Global fast-charging electric vehicle installations, the potential options for consumers to pay for charging their electrical vehicles and the current market challenges facing electric vehicle manufacturers.
  • Charging for electric
  • vehicles
slide6

Electrical Vehicles - Charging infrastructure

  • No of chargers per vehicle needed to be able to service the increasing number of EVs on the road.
    • At power levels of >10kW one charger can charge 10 vehicles.
    • Similarly, a 50kW charger could charge roughly 50 vehicles.
    • Essentially, the number of charging points will grow according to the increase in use of electric vehicles.
  • Grid challenge is how to cope with the increasingly large number of Evs.
    • The core grid will not have a problem supplying the electricity over the next few decades.
    • The problem will show up around the substations because the periphery of the grid has not been designed to handle large increases in local demand at peak times, e.g. suburbs in the evening.
    • Charging management and demand response solutions to deal precisely with these localized demand issues.
slide7

Electrical Vehicles -Billing and IT integration

  • Consumers being billed for charging their vehicle
  • There are many potential charging models, which range from normal billing according to kWhs usage to loyalty schemes where you can earn '"kWhs"' like air miles and use them at home, to free charging tokens when you buy from local shops.
  • It’s likely that telecoms operators will offer EV charging options through mobile devices for their customers.
  • We are also likely to see schemes whereby consumers and utilities can trade the charging capacity of the Lithium battery for temporary energy storage.
slide8

Future Utilities look like…..”

More informed and collaborative customers

Will have a profound impact on the shape of the power utility industry as there will be demand and more control over their energy sources and consumption.

Utility industry's response to environmental issues

Has given the industry valuable experience and a leadership position in that area.

Most utilities are not Globally Integrated Enterprises,

Understanding “Globalization Gaps” seen with other industries can help energy and utility industries think effectively about leveraging elements of globalization.

These will cause major changes in business models

Gives way to transformational innovation in enterprise and revenue model

It will be combination of hardware, management and reporting software, built atop an intelligent communications infrastructure.

slide9

Building tomorrow's grid today- Conclusion

  • Secure transmission and distribution system
  • As technology advances,
    • Become increasingly reliant on secure electricity supplies
  • As demand for electricity rising year on year and also concern for the environment
    • More renewable energy sources online
    • TSO(Transmission System Operators )are under increasing pressure:
      • To enhance the flexibility of their grids to improve capacity
      • Accommodate the demands of deregulated power markets.
  • Many companies offer sustainable solutions to the challenges of today, and tomorrow.
  • Three things are important…..
  • Access to power
  • Energy Security
  • Carbon emission
slide10

The future grid – Smart Grid

  • A smart grid is a digitally enabled electrical grid that gathers, distributes, and acts on information about the behavior of all participants (suppliers and consumers) in order to improve
  • Efficiency,
  • Reliability,
  • Economics,
  • Sustainability
  • Consumer engagement

Renewables focus and its integration

slide11

Renewable Energy focus

  • We lived for many decades in the situation of high concentrated fuel …..
  • Now moving towards increasingly difficult situation to extract,……. so more failure etc.
  • Thus leading to….
  • Increasing demand for renewable energy in capacity enhancement
slide12

Renewable Energy focus

  • Peek oil, peek natural gas, etc. talks are on……
  • We are reaching the limits, ………………….
  • Every doubling capacity of renewable …….Yield is 20% (decrease in price this is economy of scale )
  • Electricity is generated with …………………no taxing the planet

Years

slide13

Renewable Energy focus

  • While fossil fuels are being exhausted at an alarming pace, global energy consumption continues to increase. The solution, however, has always been around. We only need to connect our grid to the sun.
  • German Advisory Council on Global Change (WBGU) estimates a major reduction in the use of fossil energy by the year 2100 and a substantial development and expansion of new renewable energy sources, notably solar.

The global energy mix: exemplary path …..2050……2100

  • With over 40% of worldwide electricity usage, buildings can be considered as the largest consumers of energy. Therefore architects, consultants, developers, main contractors and investors are increasingly opting for renewable energy produced in this environmentally responsible way as we aim towards passive energy buildings.
  • Photovoltaic technology is a promising solution transforming solar radiation into electricity connected to the grid for mass usage.With PV modules, buildings gain considerable added value, which makes every investment in this technology worthwhile. They also upgrade the value of renovation projects for existing buildings.
slide14

Renewable Energy focus- remarkably bold initiative

  • Denmark has announced that by the end of this decade, it will produce a third of its energy from renewable sources - wind power, in particular, but also solar power and the burning of "biomass.“
  • More ambitiously, the Danish Government has set a goal of running the entire country on renewables by 2050.
  • What makes Denmark's announcement even more unusual is that it has won support from across the country's political spectrum.
  • No matter what we do, we will have an increase in the price of energy, simply because people in India and China want to have a car, want to travel," she says.
  • "That is why we came out with a clear ambition to be independent of fossil fuels: so we are not vulnerable to great fluctuations in energy price."

LykkeFriisDanish Liberal Party

slide15

India is member of IRENA

  • Members of Agency
  • Signatories/applicants for memberships
  • 91 States and European Union are Members of the Agency
  • 65 States are IRENA Signatories/ applicants for membership
slide16

Renewable Energy focus- India Vision & Mission

  • Vision :
  • To upscale and mainstream the use of New and Renewable Energy sources in furtherance of the national aim of energy security and energy independence
  • Mission:
  • Develop, demonstrate and commercialize technologies for harnessing new and renewable energy sources in close concert with corporate, scientific and technical institutions.
  • Replace use of different fossil fuels wherever possible, and increase access to electricity/ lighting in remote and rural areas, through Renewable Energy Systems
  • Increase the contribution of Renewable Energy in the total energy mix of the country to 6 per cent by 2022, with about 10 per cent contribution to total electricity mix, in line with IEPR projections
slide17

India: Wind Power potential

  • The wind power potential on a national level, base data collected from 10 states considering only 1% of land availability, is around 46,092 MW.

Wind Speed: 6.0 m/s

Wind Speed: 6.4 m/s

Wind Speed: 7.0 m/s

Wind Speed: 7.5 m/s

Wind Speed: 8.0m/s

slide19

India: Solar Power potential

  • If tropical India were to convert just 1% of the 5,000 trillion kilowatt-hour of solar radiation it receives a year into energy, the country will have enough to meet its energy needs.
  • In most parts of India, clear sunny weather is experienced ~300 days a year.
  • The annual global radiation varies from 1600 to 2200 kWh/sq.m. The equivalent energy potential is about 6,000 million GWh of energy per year.
  • The highest annual global radiation is received in Rajasthan and northern Gujarat.

Leading to tremendous opportunity in Renewable Energy

Average 3000 hours of sunshine per year

slide21

Operators,

Planners & Engineers

Central Generating

Step-Up

Station

Transformer

2. Communications and Information Infrastructure

Distribution

Receiving

Distribution

Control Center

Cogeneration

Turbine

Gas

Substation

Station

Substation

Turbine

Distribution

Substation

Micro-

turbine

Commercial

Diesel

Fuel

Engine

cell

Cogeneration

Storage

Industrial

Wind Power

Commercial

Residential

Integration of Renewable energy - ICT

1. Power system Infrastructure

Photovoltaic systems

slide22

Integration of Renewable energy - ICT Role

  • Billions of dollars spent on smart grid will go waste unless comparable investments next-generation utility information technology (IT) systems that collect, manage and analyze the increasing amounts of data.
  • Awareness of these systems is growing with a new focus on, and increased investment in, software and IT services for the smart grid,
  • IT is becoming an important part of the transformation of network operations as utilities exploit new data sources in order to improve network efficiency,
  • Silos of operations are being broken down, and new capabilities are emerging based on large-scale information management, real-time data analysis, and the move to closed-loop systems for managing, monitoring, and controlling the smart grid."
slide23

Smart grid challenges – Integrating Renewable

  • Present Infrastructure is inadequate and requires augmentation to support the growth of Smart Grids.
  • Most renewable resources are intermittent and can not be relied on (in its present form)for secure energy supply
  • The network will be mesh network with distributed generation connected at various voltage level …….Challenges in designing an interface
  • Regulatory Policies to deal with consequences; like off peak, peak tariffs and other related matters.
  • Impact of e-mobility ( e vehicles how to manage charging infrastructure)
  • Grid Operation : Monitoring & Control will be a challenge
  • Security challenges ……. Can not be ignored as increased complexity and networked infrastructure
slide24

Renewable Integration Model (RIM)- Objectives

  • Understand and quantify the integration requirements and cost of higher levels of variable power generation resources
  • Study integration impacts under different scenarios
  • Transparent, user friendly model
slide25

Renewable Energy integration/connectivity

  • Renewable energy integration group
    • International Standards organization(ISO) has created this
  • Guiding principle is creating Advanced idea of:
    • Forecasting, dispatch visibility and future market
  • Visibility Tech Working Group ( VTWG)
    • Focus on defining Data from wind and solar generator and implement central dispatch
  • Dispatch Technical Working Group ( DTWG)
    • Defining the technical limitation of wind and solar dispatch data requirement and dispatch compliance rules etc. requirement of dispatch parameters, rate, time
slide26

Outputs

Model

Inputs

Renewable

Integration

Model

(RIM)

Installed variable renewable generation

Operating Flexibility

Requirements

(Reg, Load Following, Day-Ahead, Ramp)

Detailed profiles and variability for load & generation

Resources required to

integrate

Variable power (renewables)

Forecast errors for load

& generation

Fixed and variable

cost of integration

Cost of conventional

resources

RIM: Variety of inputs to determine renewable integration requirements and costs

slide27

RIM: Items to be considered while modeling

  • RIM focuses on the central issues:
    • Evaluate incremental service requirements
    • Estimate magnitude of resources to provide those services
    • Estimate variable and fixed costs
  • RIM is designed to achieve above goals with functional features below:
    • Simple but careful
    • Uses simplifying assumptions to represent complex issues
    • Focus and care is placed on using all available information to best simulate reality
    • Runs quickly
  • Transparent
    • Accepts user input assumptions
    • Uses fully transparent calculations
  • Flexible
    • Can provide results across many scenarios and resource portfolios
    • User defines the analytical period and the system conditions
    • Can be updated as system and forecast capabilities change
    • Portable –based on Excel spreadsheets
slide28

RIM: Statistical model that accounts for variability and unpredictability

Minute-by-minute actual

5-minute forecast

Hour-ahead forecast

  • Regulation
    • RIM uses parameters that describe deviations from relevant scheduling
    • Two primary parameters: intra 5-min volatility and average 5-minute forecast error
  • Load following
    • RIM uses parameter that describe deviations between the 5-minute and the hour-ahead schedules
    • Two primary parameters: intra-hour variability and average hour-ahead forecast error
  • Day-ahead commitment
    • Deviation between day-ahead and hour-ahead schedule
  • The model uses all 5 statistical parameters shown above
slide29

RIM: Steps in Estimating Resource Requirements

Operating Flexibility Requirement

Reliability Requirement

Operating Flexibility Hourly Requirement

Renewable Hourly Generation

Renewable Reliability Contribution

(NQC)

Planning Reserve Margin

Forecast Peak Load

MW

Projected Hourly Load

Residual Operating Flexibility Requirement

Additional Capacity Required for integration

Residual Reliability Requirement

    • Forecast Peak Load
    • + Planning Reserve Margin
    • – Reliability Contribution of
    • Renewables (NQC)
  • Reliability Requirement
    • Hourly Load
    • + Hourly Operating Flexibility Services
    • – Hourly renewable generation
  • Operating Flexibility Requirement
slide30

RIM: Various costs to be considered

  • Fixed Costs
    • Fixed cost of resources in excess of reliability requirement
  • Variable Costs
    • Fuel and operating costs of resources providing flexibility services
  • Emission Costs
    • Emission costs based on the incremental fuel use by resources providing integration services
slide31

RIM: Results depends on inputs( Accuracy) and experience

  • RIM is a flexible tool
  • RIM’s results vary depending on inputs and assumptions used
  • Range of results and refining of results based on practical situation and studies
  • Continuous improvements with learning's from the results lead to better working model
slide33

Prakash Nayak

Director

Power Engineering and Automation P Limited

World Trade Center, 22nd Floor, Unit NO. 2201,

Brigade Gateway Campus,

Dr. Rajakumar Road, Malleswaram West,

Bangalore 560055,

www.pena.co.in

Email: pnayak@pena.co.in, pnayak@theiet.org,

Phone: +91 80 49365427

Fax:     +91 80 49365301

Mobile no +91 9901490954