Where do we go from here? Globalization, education and the challenge of uncertainty Stephen Carney, Roskilde University
Framing Uncertainty • Modernity intensifying & spreading (Giddens, Beck, Friedman) • Modernity diversifying (Appadurai, Castells) • Modernity unraveling (Wallerstein, Hardt& Negri) • Modernity as abjection (Bauman, Ferguson)
Some Central Concerns • The changing role/ nature of the state - State spatiality and reach (as potential) - Rescaling (neoliberalism as decline) • The prospects for political action - Globalization connecting the ‘multitude’ - Consumer society alienating the ‘mass’ • ‘Culture’, place, locality - Imagination and ‘ideoscape’ - Cosmopolitanism and anti-membership
Three Experiments • ‘Policyscape’ (Denmark, Nepal, China) • ‘Eduscape’ (Denmark, South Korea, Zambia) • Youth and schooling (Nepal) • Exploring flows across spaces: • Exploring flows within a single site:
Responses to ‘Policyscape’ -‘breaks from the legacy of methodological nationalism’ (Gita Steiner-Khamsi) • ‘theoreticial innovation’ (Robert Cowen) • ‘spatialfetishism!’ (Susan Robertson)
A Different Type of Critique Question: - Are wedealing with uncertainty, denying or embracing it? Sub-question: • Whatcounts as data in the ‘global culturaleconomy’?
‘Asia in Miniature’ Towards ‘an analytic of noise’: ‘…a mode of analysis that would take seriously both the fact that signifying actors might have social reasons not to establish a bond of communication but to rupture it, and the way that stylistic messages take on a social significance whether they are ‘understood’ or not through a social process of construal of the partially unintelligible’. (James Ferguson, Expectations of Modernity1999)
Questions • Where do we do comparative education research under conditions of profound global interconnectivity? • What counts as data in the emerging global cultural economy? • What type of progressive project is possible in such research?
Unframing ‘Modern’ Policy Research Subjectivity as ‘becoming’ • In assemblages • As movement ‘Non-state philosophy’ • Minorliterature(Deleuzes) • Beyond power and production (Baudrillard) Social/ epistemological -‘State’ and ‘subject’ as investments • Morality and ethics (Nietzsche)
Post-ModernOrigins of Globalization (Lizardo & Strand, 2009) French (The social) German (The political) British (The economic) The US (The cultural/ aesthetic)
‘Domesticating’ French theorizing • Post-classicaltheoryviewed as ‘impractical’: - toolittlefocus on economy, state or change • ‘Global condition’ defined by US/ British interests: - class (Marx) - state (Weber) - social solidarity (Durkheim) - ‘North’ nowseen in ‘South’ • French ‘post’ theorizinglingersas (practical/ politically-aware) globalization research
The Global Cultural Economy • ‘Scapes’ (ethno, media, techno, finance and ideo) • ‘Global Flows’ (complex, rapid, overflowing and disjunctive) • Interconnectivity of phenomena (end of centre/ periphery distinction) (‘Modernity at Large’, ArjunAppadurai1996)
Educational ‘Policyscape’ Neo & advanced liberalism (Mitchell Dean) • Visions and values • Management and organisation • Learning processes
DifferentCountries, Systems, Levels Policy Agents Technologies DKUni Law Boards Contracts Nepal Community Parents SMCs schools China Curriculum Students Pedagogy
Interconnectivities • State spatiality (read: ‘state’) - Strong state/ weak state - Reaching in/ reaching out • Negotiation and enactment (read: ‘action’) - New and old voices heard - Productive and repressive power • ‘Locality’ (read: ‘culture’) - As nationalism and protest - As tradition and change However…….
OtherResponses • Vertical case study (FranVavrus) • Multi-site ethnography (George Marcus) • Anthropology of policy (Susan Wright)
‘Uncertainty’ / ‘Complexity’ • In relation to: • Schooling & education institutions • Teachers and teaching • Knowledge • Old certaintiescollapsing; new oneshard to find: • End of politicalwill? • End of metanarratives? • End of theory?