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• Large software systems require a coordinated team of software engineers for effective development • Team organization involves devising roles for individuals and assigning responsibilities • Organizational structure attempts to facilitate cooperation. Team Coordination.

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team coordination
• Large software systems require a coordinated team of software engineers for effective development

• Team organization involves devising roles for individuals and assigning responsibilities

• Organizational structure attempts to facilitate cooperation

Team Coordination

• Team Formation and Organization

• Group Management

• Meeting Techniques

team organizations
• Organizing is building a team

• Appropriate organization depends on project length and complexity

• For long-term projects, job satisfaction is extremely important for reduced turnover

• Need mix of senior and junior engineers to facilitate both accomplishing the task and training

• Adding people to a project introduces further delays

Team Organizations
team organizations1
• Hierarchical organizations minimize and discourage communication, while democratic organizations encourage it

• Appropriate size depends on complexity

– small teams lead to cohesive design, less overhead, more unity, higher morale

– but some tasks too complex

– optimal size between 3 and 8

• Appropriate design leads to appropriate assignment of tasks and appropriate team organization

Team Organizations
centralized control
• Hierarchical organizational structure and matching pattern of communication

– chief programmer team

– chief programmer reports to peer project manager

– programmers report to chief programmer

– librarian responsible for central repository

– specialists added as needed

• Works well with simple tasks that can be grasped by one good engineer, but “single point of failure”

decentralized control
• Ring organization and connected communication

– democratic team

– decisions made by consensus

– all work is group work: “ego-less programming”

– leads to higher morale and job satisfaction

– not appropriate for large teams

• More appropriate for less understood and more complex programs with longer term project

Decentralized Control
mixed control
• Hierarchy with extra communication

– senior engineers report to project manager

– junior engineers report to senior engineers

– control is vested in project manager and senior engineers

– communication is decentralized among each set of peers and their supervisor

• Limits communication to a small group and realizes benefits of group decisions by vesting authority

Mixed Control
effective teams
• Team members

– desire to be part of group task

– have an interest in task with social interaction

– are interested in improvement and can accept constructive criticism

– are genuinely interested in sharing knowledge

– do their own share

• Team approach

– generates conflict

– requires good strategies

– forming: initial meeting to get acquainted and assess skills

– storming: characterized by conflict and open brainstorming

– norming: establishing normal patterns of behavior and approach

– performing: documenting the results

Effective Teams
conflict resolution
• Conflict is a positive attribute indicative of multiple ideas

• Conflict management is selecting between alternative actions

• Conflict resolution can be done by

– compromise: great appeal, but may indicate avoiding

– forcing: one person insists on action

– avoidance: ignore conflict, hoping it will go away

– confrontation: examine areas of disagreement, discuss differences and bring solution out in open

• Group cohesion leads toward cooperation and good conflict resolution

Conflict Resolution
meeting techniques
• Schedule early, at times when all can attend, at good venue, started when all arrive

• Prepare well, with detailed agenda and list of action items

• Procedures: complete agenda, discuss facts, solicit input from all members, take action, everyone should leave with something to do before next meeting

• Group Interaction: pay attention and react, concentrate on group, watch for nonverbal communication, backtrack when problems arise

Meeting Techniques