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1600 – Charter granted to British East India Company 1757 – Clive conquers Bengal PowerPoint Presentation
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1600 – Charter granted to British East India Company 1757 – Clive conquers Bengal 1857 – “The Mutiny” 1757-1857 – “Company Raj” 1857-1947 – “Crown Raj”. Sir Thomas Roe at Agra 1615 Seeking Protection for British “Factory”. Robert Clive accepting Bengal in 1757.

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slide1

1600 – Charter granted to British East India Company

  • 1757 – Clive conquers Bengal
  • 1857 – “The Mutiny”
  • 1757-1857 – “Company Raj”
  • 1857-1947 – “Crown Raj”
slide6
J

Mughal Miniature

Emperor Jehangir

Red Fort

“JharokaDarshan”

brief history of colonialism
Brief History of Colonialism
  • European colonialism (second wave) did NOT begin as state-led imperial conquest. It began in India and was the result of the maneuvers of a private organization, the British East India Company, to control trade and commerce in India and the Indian Ocean.
  • 17th and 18th century encounter of Europeans with Indians was not clearly marked by the sense of white racial supremacy that later came to define European colonialism.
  • Colonial-Orientalist scholarship: the making of histories and the defining of traditions
  • Colonial administration: enumeration and classification of people; creation of “religion” as a category and as the primary marker of identity.
  • The “high noon” of colonialism in the 19th century was marked by the now fully articulated justification of a “Civilizing Mission” (expressed in colonial education as well as in missionary activity); by the late 19th century most of Africa and Asia were under some form of European Colonial rule
some effects of colonialism on colonized societies
Some effects of Colonialism on colonized societies
  • Reconfiguration of identities, privileging Religion as primary marker of public identity; colonial codification of religious law
  • Categorization and codification of Religious traditions; creation of textually based normative definitions of what is “legitimately” and “authentically” Islamic and what is not; exclusion of many important strands within religious traditions
  • For instance, Sufism and local variation are considered “low” and “adulterated” Islam, while certain Arabic texts, including the Quran and some arbitrarily chosen legal books, define what is normative Islam
  • European Christian missionary activity as well as Western criticisms of “inferior” non-western traditions, especially Islam, resulted in a variety of reactions from the colonized – defenses, apologies, counter-attacks
  • Movements spring up in response to the material, moral and intellectual threat of Western domination; amongst Muslims in particular the desire is to prove to both themselves and the West that Islam can be an effective modern force, a challenge to European style modernity
  • Territorial nationalism; Muslims (and everyone else in Africa & Asia) in pre-colonial times lived in empires and kingdoms with shifting and porous boundaries; territorial nationalism was imported from Europe (with intense criticism) and did not fit easily with older identity configurations such as a universal Muslim Umma
significant changes
Significant Changes
  • Modern Science & Technology
  • Centralized Administration
  • An “English” Education
  • British Legal Systems
  • Racism & Theories of Racial Difference
  • Monolithic Social Classifications
  • Highest Value placed on “Authentic” religion and “Original” texts
the colonial civilizing mission
The Colonial Civilizing Mission

Brigadier General John Jacob in the early 1800s asserted:

“We hold India, then, by being in reality, as in reputation, a superior race to the Asiatic; and if this natural superiority did not exist, we should not, and could not, retain the country for one week. IF, then, we are really a morally superior race, governed by higher motives and possessing higher attributes than the Asiatics, the more the natives of India are able to understand us, and the more we improve their capacity for so understanding, the firmer will become our power. Away, then with the assumption of equality; and let us accept our true position of a dominant race. So placed, let us establish our rule by setting them a high example, by making them feel the value of truth and honesty, and by raising their moral and intellectual powers.”

macaulay s minute on education 1835
Macaulay’s Minute on Education 1835
  • We must at present do our best to form a class who may be interpreters between us and the millions whom we govern – a class of persons Indian in blood and colour, but English in tastes, in opinions, in morals and in intellect.