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Artificial Intelligence & LAW. Ermo Täks. Business Process Reengineering. main efforts include : Eliminating layers of traditional management; Compressing job categories ; Creating work teams ; Training employees in multilevel skills;

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business process reengineering
  • maineffortsinclude:
    • Eliminating layers of traditional management;
    • Compressingjobcategories;
    • Creatingworkteams;
    • Training employees in multilevel skills;
    • Shortening and simplifying variousbusiness processes; and
    • Streamliningadministration.
  • success of business process re-engineering
    • greatlystreamlined the organizational structure,
    • improved management,
    • raised effectiveness and efficiency, and
    • boostedproductivity.
  • Internet canhelp government in
    • improving its interactions with businesses and citizens,
    • while providing a soundbasis
    • for establishing a new type of partnership relationship
  • government informatization is no longer simply an internal business ofgovernment.
  • Whenever an IT project is going to be put on the agenda,
    • government must take itsinternaldemandsand the external interactions
    • with business and citizens as a whole into consideration.
  • Governmentalsystems
    • must be planned and designed
    • under the architecture of theInternet and
    • under the circumstance of globalization
  • Today’s government environment, is totallydifferent from the previous one
  • Governmentsare facing a task of transformation.
  • Governmenthaveto
    • reinvent the existing modality and organizational structure of government,
    • which was created for theindustrial age and
    • has existed for about two hundred years.
what is bpr
Whatis BPR?
  • A collection of activities designed to produce a specific output for a particular customer or market
  • Emphasison how the work is done within an organisationratherthanproduction
  • A specific ordering of work activities across time and place
  • Clearlydefined inputs and outputs

TharangaThilakasiri, Importance of business process reengineering


the need
The need
  • Publicsectorprocessesare highlystructured
    • hard to have these old and complex procedures transformed
  • Government is the only one that provides public services.
    • Interaction withgovernment is not a matter of choice.
  • There is a big fragmentation of workflows
  • There are many levels of decision-making and centralized control.
  • political leaders ignore matters related to IT
    • anddelegate them to technical experts
business process improvement
Business process improvement
  • equivalent to re-decorating a house
  • usually within a single department
business process reengineering1
Business process reengineering
  • usually targetingdifferent departments, cross-functional
  • supports the company’s Business Plan.
  • Focusto support of mid-term targets (three to four years in the future)
business process architecture
Business process architecture
  • objective to achieve an overall change
  • Investment, timeusageand the risk are substantial
  • No guarantees of achieving the desired returns
  • unlimited in scope
bpr fundamentials
BPR fundamentials
  • Fundamentalrethinking and radical redesign of business processes
  • to achieve dramatic improvements incritical,contemporary measures of performance, such as
    • cost,
    • quality,
    • service,
    • speed
  • ask the most fundamental questions
    • about their organizations
    • how they operate

Why do we do what we do?

And why do we do it the way we do?

bpr methodology
BPR Methodology

1.Establishing an organisation’s approach to BPR2.Identifying the opportunity3.Analysis of an existing process4.Process re-design5.Implementation of the change6.Performance monitoring

bpr in public s ector
BPR inPublicSector
  • Different types of interactions of the government:
    • G2C (to Citizens),
    • G2B (to Business),
    • G2G (to Government),
    • B2G (BusinessestoGovernment
  • One-Stop Government (OSG),
    • a concept related to e-government, consists of theintegration of services from the viewpoint of users
      • citizens,
      • business
      • publicservers
difficulties of bpr in public sector
Difficultiesof BPR inPublicSector
  • Attitude-Willingness to apply the radical changes derived from BPR.
  • Scope - Changes depth. The more drastic the change, the wider its scope.
  • Extension - Amount of functional areas and entities included in business processes.
  • Knowledge- Abilities of leaders and team members in charge of BPR.
  • Leadership- Project leader influence and authority.
  • Objectives - Definition degree of objectives to be attained with the project.
  • InstitutionalRestrictions - Legislation and standards that restrict the development of new proposals.
  • Resources- Availability of human and financial resources.
  • Techno centrism - Focusing on technological uses and ignoring other organizational aspects.
risks of applying bpr
Risksofapplying BPR
  • A focus on top-down design at the expense of employee participation and concerns about implementation;
  • Less meaningful interaction of organization members and a loss of organizational culture.
  • A danger of increased organizational rigidity;
  • Inadvertent deflation of the knowledge asset which is central to public sector organisations;
transformational process
  • is made up of four key components:
    • the work to be done by the organisation,
    • the individuals who do the job,
    • the formal structures and processes in place to motivate performance
    • the informal arrangements such as communication and influence
transformational process1
  • a criticalfactor:
    • What is it that the organisation hopes to achieve? How will success be measured?
    • What structures need to be put in place to ensure there is support for the change?
    • Who will lead the change?
    • Are there those who will act as champions of the change?
    • How will the organisation build the confidence of staff?
resistance to change
  • handling people’s reaction to change is difficult to anticipate and manage
  • one needsto see it from the perspective of the person experiencing it, bearing in mind the culture they live in.
m inimising resistance to change
Minimising resistance to change
  • 6 key activities:
    • Avoidoverorganising.
    • Communicate like never before.
    • Work at gaining commitment.
    • Turn perceptions of threat to opportunities.
    • Ensureearlyinvolvement.
    • Provide help to face up to change.
LawyersworkdecomposedR. Susskind, „Tomorrow's lawyers: an introduction to your futuure“, Oxford University Press, 2013
  • Document review/probleem analysis
  • Legalresearch
  • Project management
  • Litigationsupport
  • (electronic) disclosure
  • Strategy
  • Tactics
  • Negotiation
  • advocacy
document review probleem analysis
Document review/probleemanalysis
  • is the process whereby
    • each party to a case sorts through and analyzes the documents and data they possess (and later the documents and data supplied by their opponents through discovery)
    • to determine which are sensitive or otherwise relevant to the case
  • During the doc review process,
    • each document may be tagged according to certain categories, including whether it is relevant to an issue in the case,
    • whether it is responsive to a discovery request (and therefore may need to be produced as part of the discovery process),
    • whether it is confidential,
    • whether it is attorney client or otherwise privileged
legal research
  • the process of
    • identifying and retrieving information
    • necessary to supportlegaldecision-making.
  • legal research includes each step of a course of action that
    • begins with an analysis of the facts of a problem
    • concludes with the application
    • communication of the results of the investigation