Catholicism. Renaissance to Present. Early Catholicism & the Spanish Inquisition. In the late 13 th century, the Spanish Inquisition was authorized by Pope Sixtus IV under Spain’s King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
Renaissance to Present
October 1517 – Germany – Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses that protested the Catholic Church selling indulgences
~ Martin Luther presents his ideas, Protestant Reformation is addressed
** Early 16th century – Erasmus, Calvin, Zwingli, Huss, Wycliffe criticize Catholic Church teachings led to →Protestant Reformation **
Protestant Reformation: Christian reform movement throughout Europe that established Protestantism as a religion
Causes: Accusations of corruption in the Catholic Church, selling of indulgences, Great Schism, Northern Renaissance, German peasant uprisings, Martin Luther’s 95 Theses
(Martin Luther publishes his 95 Theses)
infant baptisms and reigned in Mϋnster until Catholic and Protestant armies crushed them.
1534- Henry VIII declares himself head of the Church in England when he breaks away from the Catholic Church with the Act of Supremacy. This is later termed the English Reformation.
Catholic Church’s response to Protestant Reformation
In general, Martin Luther, John Calvin and other Protestants began a reformation to change the Catholic Church, but started the Protestant movement. A main concern of the Reformation was the issue of free will. The Catholics responded with the Counter-Reformation that reclaimed parts of Europe that they lost to Protestantism. As a result, the majority of Northern Europe became
Protestant and the majority of Southern Europe remained Catholic. Calvinism, Lutheranism, the Anglican Church were some of the major religions that derived from Catholicism.
French Revolution and Catholicism
Catholicism was spreading to several continents and countries through missionaries.
In Latin America, Catholicism was being rejected by anti-clerical regimes in the 1830s that destroyed Church properties, and tore apart bishop positions etc.
In 1829, Catholic Emancipation – England – gave Catholics right to vote and hold public office. This emancipation also removed many of the restrictions put on Roman Catholics, like the Test Acts and the Acts of Uniformity.
In 1870, Italy annexed Rome to restrain Garibaldi when Italy was trying to unify and going through a Revolution.
Pope Leo XIII issued the encyclical RerumNovarum that expressed the popes concerns about developing economic and social issues. It criticized the laissez-faire and socialism ideals. (Modern European History pg 279)
Red Terror – September – October 1918