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第七章 云计算与移动多媒体广播 Chapter 7 Cloud Computing and CMMB

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  1. 第七章 云计算与移动多媒体广播Chapter 7 Cloud Computing and CMMB 电控学院 电子工程学科部 司鹏搏 综合楼825室 sipengbo@bjut.edu.cn

  2. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  3. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.2 CMMB • 7.2.1 What is CMMB? • 7.2.2 Frame Structures, Channel Coding and Modulation • 7.2.3 Multiplexing • 7.2.4 Services • 7.2.5 Emergency Broadcasting

  4. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  5. 7.1.1 Google Trends on the Terms

  6. 7.1.1 Forecasts on Cloud Computing • IDC: • “Spending on IT cloud services will triple in the next 5 years, reaching $42 billion & capturing 25% of IT spending growth in 2012 and nearly a third of growth the following year. With the overall IT market spend being $383 billion, this kind of growth validates that the opportunity deserves the attention it is getting” --2008 • Merrill Lynch: • by 2011, $160 billion • Someone else: • Cloud computing is one of the Top 15 Technology Trends and that it warrants investment now so you can gain the experience necessary to take advantage of it in its many forms to transform your organization into a more efficient and responsive service provider to the business

  7. 7.1.1 Forecasts on Cloud Computing Peak of the inflated expectation

  8. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  9. 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing Google Cordys Microsoft Force.com Amazon MOSSO IBM

  10. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  11. 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • Why it is called “Cloud”? • The term cloud is used as a metaphor for the Internet, based on the cloud drawing used to depict the Internet in computer network diagrams as an abstraction of the underlying infrastructure it represents. • Cloud Computing • Internet- ("cloud-") based development and use of computer technology ("computing"). • In concept, it is a paradigm shift whereby details are abstracted from the users who no longer have need of, expertise in, or control over the technology infrastructure "in the cloud" that supports them. • Describes a new supplement, consumption and delivery model for IT services based on the Internet, and it typically involves the provision of dynamically scalable and often virtualized resources as a service over the Internet. • Resource (all kinds of IT services over the Internet) as a service

  12. 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • McKinsey • Clouds are hardware-based services offering compute, network and storage capacity where: Hardware management is highly abstracted from the buyer, buyers incur infrastructure costs as variable OPEX(operational expenditure), and Infrastructure capacity is highly elastic • FZI (Jens Nimis) • Building on compute and storage virtualization, cloud computing provides scalable, network-centric, abstracted IT infrastructure, platforms, and applications as on-demand services that are billed by consumption

  13. 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • Simplified Concepts • Cloud=Internet • Cloud Computing=Everything as a Service(XaaS) • Standard Layers: • Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) • Platform as a Service (PaaS) • Software as a Service (SaaS) • Extra Layers: • Human as a Service • Administration/Business Support

  14. Cloud Service Provider Cloud ServiceConsumer Cloud ServiceDeveloper User Interface API Software-as-a-Service - e.g. Lotus Live Cloud Services … Service User Platform as-as-Service - e.g. Desktop Cloud Managed Environment Infrastructure-as-a-Service - e.g. Compute Cloud Virtualized Infrastructure – Server, Storage, Network Common Cloud Platform BSS Business Support Services Service Delivery Portal API Service Development Portal Offering Mgmt Customer Mgmt Pricing / Rating Consumer Business Manager Developer Order Mgmt Entitlements Subscriber Mgmt Service Provider Portal Accounting & Billing Invoicing Peering & Settlement Contract Mgmt SLA Reporting Service Offering Catalog Consumer Administrator Metering Reporting & Analytics Management Environment OSS Operational Support Services Operational Console Service Delivery Catalog Service Request Mgmt Service Def. & Developm.. Tools Service Automation Mgmt Service Definitions Provisioning Configuration Mgmt Image Lifecycle Mgmt Partner Clouds Monitoring & Event Mgmt Incident, Problem & Change Mgmt Service Level Mgmt Continuity Mgmt, Backup / Restore Asset Mgmt Capacity, Perform. Mgmt Virtualization Mgmt Image Creation Tools Customer In-house IT Service Business Manager Service Operations Manager Security & Resiliency

  15. 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • Seven Types of Cloud Services • IaaS • PaaS • SaaS • Cloud web service • MPS (Management Service Provider) • BSP (Business Service Platform) • Network Integration

  16. 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? Collaboration CRM/ERP/HR Business Processes Industry Applications Software as a Service Middleware Web 2.0 Application Runtime Java Runtime High Volume Transactions Development Tooling Database Platform as a Service Data Center Fabric Servers Networking Storage Shared virtualized, dynamic provisioning Infrastructure as a Service

  17. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  18. 7.1.4 IaaS/Utility Computing • To provide user computing resources and storage comprised with many servers as an on-demand and “pay per use” service • Data Center, Bandwidth, Private Line Access, Servers and Server Room, Firewall, Storage space ….. • Examples: • Amazon:EC2 (Elastic Compute Cloud) • Rackspace: cheaper than EC2 www.rackspace.com • 世纪互联: www.21vianet.com

  19. 7.1.4 IaaS/Utility Computing • Benefits of IaaS • Reduce capital expense • Less upfront hardware costs • Reduce operational expense • Free your IT resources from infrastructure administration • Improve security • Worry free • Pay per use • No extra investment

  20. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  21. 7.1.4 PaaS • Bundles all stack components (hardware, infrastructure, storage) together with database, security, workflow, user interface, and other tools that allow users to create and host powerful business applications, web sites, and mobile apps • Examples: • Sales force:http://www.force.com • 800APP(八百客): http://www.800app.com

  22. 7.1.5 PaaS • Benefits of PaaS • Reduce capital expense • No upfront hardware or software infrastructure costs • Reduce operational expense • Free your IT resources from infrastructure administration • Faster time to value • Rapid development and instant deployment • Improve resource productivity • Build more apps, more quickly, and free up developers for new projects • Reduce integration costs • Every new app built on the platform is designed for easy Web services integration

  23. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  24. 7.1.6 SaaS • A model of software deployment over the Internet. • Provider licenses an application to customers as a service on demand, either through a time subscription or a “pay-as-you-go” model • It allows vendors to develop, host and operate software for customer use. • Rather than purchase the hardware and software to run an application, customers need only to download the application to run it. • SaaS deployed initially for sales force automation and customer relationship management (CRM), its use has become commonplace by businesses for tasks • Such as computerized billing, invoicing, human resource management, service desk management, and sales pipeline management, even Library management applications. • SaaS developed rapidly and brought big challenges for the traditional software industry.

  25. 7.1.6 SaaS • Benefits of SaaS • From general people: • We want to deal with an application or a service, not software • We want those applications and services to be as intuitive as possible, and we want to have to know only as much as we need in order to use them • We don't want to have to worry about extraneous error messages we don't understand or new software releases we don't know what to do with • We want a quality experience, as we do with other things in work and life we enjoy using

  26. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  27. 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • Google • Architecture • Google file system • Map/reduce model • Chubby • BigTable • Some APIs are available • Google web toolkit (GWT), Google Map API, … • Infrastructures are private • Azure from Microsoft • With the OS Widows Azure • Resource management, load balancing, geo-replication, etc • Applications such as SQL Azure • Some APIs available

  28. 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms

  29. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  30. 7.1.8 Security Concerns in Cloud Computing Security concerns arising because both customer data and program are residing in Provider Premises Security is always a major concern in Open System Architectures

  31. 7.1.8 Dangers and Vulnerabilities • Dangers • Disrupts Services • Theft of Information • Loss of Privacy • Damage information • Vulnerabilities • Hostile Program • Hostile people giving instructions to good programs • Bad guys corrupting or eavesdropping on communications

  32. 7.1.8 Common Security Requirements

  33. 7.1.8 Security Issues • How much Safe is Data from Natural Disaster? • Data can be redundantly store in multiple physical location. • Physical location should be distributed across world. • Data Location • When user use the cloud, user probably won't know exactly where your data is hosted, what country it will be stored in. • Data should be stored and processed only in specific jurisdictions as define by user. • Provider should also make a contractual commitment to obey local privacy requirements on behalf of their customers, • Data-centered policies that are generated when a user provides personal or sensitive information, that travels with that information throughout its lifetime to ensure that the information is used only in accordance with the policy

  34. 7.1.8 Security Issues • Backups of Data • Data store in database of provider should be redundantly store in multiple physical location • Data that is generated during running of program on instances is all customer data and therefore provider should not perform backups • Control of Administrator on Databases • Data Sanitization • Sanitization is the process of removing sensitive information from a storage device. • What happens to data stored in a cloud computing environment once it has passed its user’s “use by date” • What data sanitization practices does the cloud computing service provider propose to implement for redundant and retiring data storage devices as and when these devices are retired or taken out of service.

  35. 7.1.8 Security Issues • Host Security Issues • The host running the job, the job may well be a virus or a worm which can destroy the system • From malicious users • Solution: A trusted set of users is defined through the distribution of digital certification, passwords, keys etc. and then access control policies are defined to allow the trusted users to access the resources of the hosts.

  36. 7.1.8 Security Issues • Information Security • Security related to the information exchanged between different hosts or between hosts and users. • This issues pertaining to secure communication, authentication, and issues concerning single sign on and delegation. • Secure communication issues include those security concerns that arise during the communication between two entities. • These include confidentiality and integrity issues. Confidentiality indicates that all data sent by users should be accessible to only “legitimate” receivers, and integrity indicates that all data received should only be sent/modified by “legitimate” senders. • Solution: public key encryption, X.509 certificates, and the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) enables secure authentication and communication over computer networks.

  37. 7.1.8 Security Issues

  38. 7.1.8 Security Issues • Network Security • Denial of Service: • Where servers and networks are brought down by a huge amount of network traffic and users are denied the access to a certain Internet based service. • Like DNS Hacking, Routing Table “Poisoning”, XDoS attacks • QoS Violation : • Through congestion, delaying or dropping packets, or through resource hacking. • Man in the Middle Attack: • To overcome it always use SSL • IP Spoofing: • Spoofing is the creation of TCP/IP packets using somebody else's IP address.

  39. 7.1.8 Security Issues • Network Security (cont.) • Solution: • Infrastructure will not permit an instance to send traffic with a source IP or MAC address other than its own. • Port Scanning: • If the customer configures the security group to allow traffic from any source to a specific port, then that specific port will be vulnerable to a port scan. • When Port scanning is detected it should be stopped and blocked. • ARP Cache Attack: • To find out the MAC address associated with a particular IP address, a computer simply sends an ARP request broadcast. • An attacker sitting on the same Ethernet network (i.e., LAN), can easily sniff the network traffic of a victim on his Ethernet network by sending spoofed ARP messages to the victim.

  40. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.1.1 One of the Most Promising Technologies • 7.1.2 Major Players of Cloud Computing • 7.1.3 What is Cloud Computing? • 7.1.4 IaaS • 7.1.5 PaaS • 7.1.6 SaaS • 7.1.7 Cloud Computing Platforms • 7.1.8 Security Issues • 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life • 7.2 CMMB

  41. 7.1.9 Cloud Computing in our Daily Life 69% of Americans use cloud computing Services

  42. 7.1.9 Cloud Computing at Libraries • OhioLINK library consortium: • Amazon’s Web Services to host Digital Resource Commons repository instances Kent State’s Centennial Collection • District of Columbia Public Library: • Amazon’s EC2 service to host website; Amazon’s S3 service to backup ILS, Flickr and Amazon EC2 for upcoming digital repository, and the District adopts the GAPE version of Gmail as its mail platform • The Eastern Kentucky University Library: • Google Docs to collect responses to web forms, Google Calendar for instruction and meeting rooms, and Google Analytics to collect statistics about their website, catalog and blogs • Western State College in Gunnison, Colorado: • Google’s App Engine for ELibrary, also migrated other databases to this service

  43. 7.1.9 Cloud Computing at Libraries

  44. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.2 CMMB • 7.2.1 What is CMMB? • 7.2.2 Frame Structures, Channel Coding and Modulation • 7.2.3 Multiplexing • 7.2.4 Services • 7.2.5 Emergency Broadcasting

  45. 7.2.1 What is CMMB? • CMMB • China Mobile Multimedia Broadcasting • Transmission • Satellites plus terrestrial wireless broadcasting • Receivers/User Devices • PMPs (personal multimedia players), cell phones, PDAs, IMPCs, Laptops, …, with small-size screens (smaller than 7 inches) • Contents • Audio/video broadcasts, information services, …

  46. Main Contents • 7.1 Cloud Computing • 7.2 CMMB • 7.2.1 What is CMMB? • 7.2.2 Frame Structures, Channel Coding and Modulation • 7.2.3 Multiplexing • 7.2.4 Services • 7.2.5 Emergency Broadcasting

  47. 7.2.2 Design Requirements • Requirements on the Receiving • High quality receiving in different scenarios • Indoor, outdoor, highly mobile, … • Power efficient • Single, small-size receiving antenna • Requirements on the Services • Flexibility for multi-services • Efficient radio resource allocation for different services • Requirement on the Networks • Single frequency point networking