**Binary Heaps** • What is a Binary Heap? • Array representation of a Binary Heap • MinHeap implementation • Operations on MinHeap: • Insert • Delete • Converting an array into a binary heap • Heap Applications: • Heap Sort • Heap as a priority queue

**What is a Binary Heap?** • A binary heap is a complete binary tree with one or both of the following heap order properties: • MinHeap property: Each node must have a key that is less or equal to the key of each of its children. • MaxHeap property: Each node must have a key that is greater or equal to the key of each of its children. • A binary heap satisfying the MinHeap property is called a MinHeap. • A binary heap satisfying the MaxHeap property is called a MaxHeap. • A binary heap with all keys equal is both a MinHeap and a MaxHeap. • Recall: A complete binary tree may have missing nodes only on the right side of the lowest level. All levels except the bottom one must be fully populated with nodes All missing nodes, if any, must be on the right side of the lowest level

**13** 13 21 21 16 16 24 31 19 68 6 31 19 68 A MinHeap 65 26 65 26 Not a Heap 32 32 13 13 Not a Heap 21 21 16 16 24 31 19 68 24 31 19 65 26 65 26 32 32 Violates heap structural property Violates heap structural property MinHeap and non-MinHeap examples Violates MinHeap property 21>6 Not a Heap

**68** 68 65 65 46 46 24 32 23 25 67 32 23 25 15 20 15 20 Not a Heap 31 31 70 Not a Heap Not a Heap 30 50 40 21 16 24 31 19 38 19 18 10 15 20 25 2 5 15 MaxHeap and non-MaxHeap examples Violates MaxHeap property 65 < 67 A MaxHeap Violates heap structural property Violates heap structural property

**13** 21 16 24 31 19 68 65 26 32 Array Representation of a Binary Heap • A heap is a dynamic data structure that is represented and manipulated more efficiently using an array. • Since a heap is a complete binary tree, its node values can be stored in an array, without any gaps, in a breadth-first order, where: Value(node i+1) array[ i ], for i > 0 • The root is array[0] • The parent of array[i] is array[(i – 1)/2], where i > 0 • The left child, if any, of array[i] is array[2i+1]. • The right child, if any, of array[i] is array[2i+2].

**13** 21 16 24 31 19 68 65 26 32 Array Representation of a Binary Heap (contd.) • We shall use an implementation in which the heap elements are stored in an array starting at index 1. Value(node i ) array[i] , for i > 1 • The root is array[1]. • The parent of array[i] is array[i/2], where i > 1 • The left child, if any, of array[i] is array[2i]. • The right child, if any, of array[i] is array[2i+1].

**MyComparable** AbstractObject Container AbstractContainer BinaryHeap PriorityQueue MinHeap Implementation • The class hierarchy for BinaryHeap is: • The PriorityQueue interface is: 1 public interface PriorityQueue extends Container 2 { 3 public abstract void enqueue(MyComparable comparable) ; 4 public abstract MyComparable findMin() ; 5 public abstract MyComparable dequeueMin() ; 6 }

**MinHeap Implementation (contd.)** 1 public class BinaryHeap extends AbstractContainer implements PriorityQueue 2 { 3 protected MyComparable array[] ; 4 // count is inherited from AbstractContainer • public BinaryHeap(int size) • { 7 array = new MyComparable[size + 1] ; // array[0] is not used 8 } 9 10 public BinaryHeap(MyComparable[ ] comparable) 11 { 12 this(comparable.length) ; 13 14 for(int i = 0 ; i < comparable.length ; i++) 15 array[i + 1] = comparable[i] ; 16 count = comparable.length ; 17 buildHeapBottomUp() ; 18 } 19 // . . . 20 }

**MinHeap Insertion** • The pseudo code algorithm for inserting in a MinHeap is: 1 minHeapInsert(e1) 2 { 3 if(Heap is full) throw an exception ; 4 insert e1 at the end of the heap ; 5 while(e1 is not in the root node and e1 < parent(e1)) 6 swap(e1 , parent(e1)) ; • } • The process of swapping an element with its parent, in order to restore the heap order property after an insertion is called percolate up, sift up, or reheapification upward. • Thus, the steps for insertion are: • Insert at the end of the heap. • As long as the heap order property is violated, percolate up.

**Percolate-Up Via a Hole** • Instead of repeated swappings, it is more efficient to use a hole (i.e., an empty node) to percolate up: • To insert an element e, insert a hole at the end of the heap. • While the heap order property is violated, percolate the hole up. • Insert e in the hole. p p < e p e e p > e hole e p

**13** 13 Insert 18 Percolate up 21 21 16 16 24 31 19 68 24 31 19 68 65 26 65 26 18 32 32 13 13 18 21 16 16 24 21 19 68 24 18 19 68 65 26 31 65 26 31 32 32 MinHeap Insertion Example Percolate up

**MinHeap Insertion implementation** • public void enqueue(MyComparable comparable) • { 3 if(isFull()) throw new ContainerFullException() ; 4 // percolate up via a hole 5 int hole = ++count ; • while(hole > 1 && array[hole / 2].isGT(comparable)) • { 8 array[hole] = array[hole / 2] ; 9 hole = hole / 2 ; 10 } 11 array[hole] = comparable ; 12 } • public boolean isFull() • { 3 return count == array.length - 1 ; 4 }

**MinHeap deletion** • The pseudo code algorithm for deleting from a MinHeap is: 1 minHeapDelete(){ 2 if(Heap is empty) throw an exception ; 3 extract the element from the root ; 4 if(root is a leaf node){ delete root ; return; } 5 copy the element from the last leaf to the root ; 6 delete last leaf ; 7 p = root ; 8 while(p is not a leaf node and p > any of its children) 9 swap p with the smaller child ; 10 return ; • } • The process of swapping an element with its smaller child, in order to restore the heap order property after a deletion is called percolate down, sift down, or reheapification downward. • Thus, the steps for deletion are: • Replace the value at the root by the last leaf value. • Delete the last leaf. • As long as the heap order property is violated, percolate down.

**Percolate-Down Via a Hole** • Instead of repeated swappings, it is more efficient to use a hole (i.e., an empty node) to percolate down: • A hole is created in the root by deleting the root element. • Copy the value in the last node in a temporary variable. • Delete the last node. • While the heap order property is violated, percolate the hole down. • Insert the value from the temporary variable into the hole. e < min(l , r) e > l > r l r r e e > l < r l l r l r

**13** Delete min element 31 18 18 19 19 24 21 23 68 24 21 23 68 65 26 65 26 32 31 32 Replace by value of last node Percolate down 18 18 21 31 19 19 24 31 23 68 24 21 23 68 65 26 65 26 32 32 MinHeap Deletion Example delete last node Percolate down

**MinHeap Deletion Implementation** 1 public MyComparable dequeueMin(){ 2 if(isEmpty()) throw new ContainerEmptyException(); 3 MyComparable minItem = array[1]; 4 array[1] = array[count]; 5 count--; 6 percolateDown(1); 7 return minItem; • } 1 private void percolateDown(int hole) { 2 int child ; MyComparable temp = array[hole] ; 3 while(hole * 2 <= count) { 4 child = hole * 2 ; 5 if(child + 1 <= count && array[child + 1].isLT(array[child]) ) 6 child++ ; • if(array[child].isLT(temp)) • array[hole] = array[child] ; • else • break ; 11 hole = child ; 12 } 13 }

**Converting an array into a Binary heap ** • The algorithm to convert an array into a binary heap is: • Start at the level containing the last non-leaf node (i.e., array[n/2], where n is the array size). • Make the subtree rooted at the last non-leaf node into a heap by invoking percolateDown. • Move in the current level from right to left, making each subtree, rooted at each encountered node, into a heap by invoking percolateDown. • If the levels are not finished, move to a lower level then go to step 3. • Stop. • The above algorithm can be refined to the following method of the BinaryHeap class: • private void buildHeapBottomUp() • { • for(int i=count/2; i>=1; i--) • { 5 // restore heap property for subtree rooted at array[i] 6 percolateDown(i) ; 7 } 8 }

**13** 70 70 70 70 70 29 13 26 29 29 29 16 68 68 16 16 68 29 65 26 65 13 13 31 31 31 32 31 31 19 19 19 19 19 19 68 68 16 68 16 16 65 65 13 13 65 65 29 26 26 26 26 70 32 32 32 31 32 32 Converting an array into a MinHeap (Example) At each stage convert the highlighted tree into a MinHeap by percolating down starting at the root of the highlighted tree.

**Heap Application: Heap Sort ** • A MinHeap or a MaxHeap can be used to implement an efficient sorting algorithm called Heap Sort. • The following algorithm uses a MinHeap: 1 public static void heapSort(MyComparable[] array) 2 { 3 BinaryHeap heap = new BinaryHeap(array) ; 4 for(int i = 0; i < array.length; i++) 5 array[i] = heap.dequeueMin() ; 6 } • Because the dequeueMin algorithm is O(log n), heapSort is an O(n log n) algorithm. • Apart from needing the extra storage for the heap, heapSort is among efficient sorting algorithms.

**Heap Applications: Priority Queue** • A heap can be used as the underlying implementation of a priority queue. • A priority queue is a data structure in which the items to be inserted have associated priorities. • Items are withdrawn from a priority queue in order of their priorities, starting with the highest priority item first. • Priority queues are often used in resource management, simulations, and in the implementation of some algorithms (e.g., some graph algorithms, some backtracking algorithms). • Several data structures can be used to implement priority queues. Below is a comparison of some:

**Priority Queue (Contd.)** 1 priorityQueueEnque(e1) 2 { 3 if(priorityQueue is full) throw an exception; 4 insert e1 at the end of the priorityQueue; 5 while(e1 is not in the root node and e1 < parent(e1)) 6 swap(e1 , parent(e1)); 7 } 1 priorityQueueDequeue(){ 2 if(priorityQueue is empty) throw an exception; 3 extract the highest priority element from the root; 4 if(root is a leaf node){ delete root ; return; } 5 copy the element from the last leaf to the root; 6 delete last leaf; 7 p = root; 8 while(p is not a leaf node and p > any of its children) 9 swap p with the smaller child; 10 return; 11 } X Heap Heap X is the element with highest priority