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Middle English

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  1. Middle English

  2. Cnut’s Danish-English Empire 1014-1035

  3. Harold Godwin Earl of Wessex William of Normandy

  4. The Norman Invasion 1066

  5. Battle of Hastings • Harold Godwin dies • Normans pillage southern England • Christmas 1066: Enthronement of William of Normandy

  6. After the Norman Conquest 1066-1204 William replaces the old English nobility by a new Norman nobility. Soon, every important position in government, church and at universities was held by a Norman.

  7. Norman property in England and France 1204 Loss of Normandy

  8. English in the 13th century After loss of Normandy: French remains the dominant language of the upper classes. At the end of the 13th century, English is used more commonly by the upper classes. King Henry III 1216-1272

  9. The growing importance of English • Upper classes need to communicate with their people. • After the loss of the Normandy, French was no longer needed. • Speaking French was fashionable in the 13th century, but Norman French had much lower prestige than the French spoken in Paris.

  10. Early French loan words (1066-1250) baron noble servant messenger feast

  11. French loan words: nouns action adventure number age air pair bucket calendar person carpenter city powder coast comfort river cost country sign courage coward opinion

  12. French loan words: nouns ease envy poverty error face reason noise fault season flower force sound Honor hour use manner task honor damage debt people

  13. French loan words: verbs advise aim allow approach arrange arrive betray change chase serve comfort complain conceal consider continue count deceive destroy declare defeat delay desire enjoy enter

  14. French loan words: verbs force form increase inform join suppose marry obey observe pay wait please praise prefer propose prove push receive refuse relieve remember waste satisfy save

  15. French loan words: adjectives able active actual brief calm certain clear common contrary courageous cruel curious eager easy faint fierce final firm foreign gentle hasty

  16. French loan words: adjectives honest horrible innocent large natural nice original perfect poor precious pure real rude safe scarce second simple single special stable usual

  17. Government and administration government crown state empire realm authority court parliament assembly traitor treason exile liberty office mayor prince baron duke sir madam mistress

  18. Church and religion religion sermon confess prayer lesson passion chant sacrifice chapter abbey cloister virgin saint miracle mystery faith mercy pity virtue preach pray

  19. Law justice equity judgment crime judge attorney bill petition complaint evidence proof bail ransom verdict sentence award fine punishment prison accuse indict blame arrest seize pledge condemn convict acquit fraud perjury property estate heir entail just innocent

  20. Army and navy army navy pace enemy battle combat siege defense ambush retreat soldier guard spy captain besiege

  21. Fashion dress habit fashion robe coat collar veil mitten adorn embellish blue brown fur jewel ivory

  22. Meals and food dinner supper boil taste appetite salmon beef veal pork sausage bacon gravy cream sugar salad fruits orange roast lemon cherry peach spice mustard vinegar

  23. Furniture, social life couch chair screen lamp blanket wardrobe recreation leisure dance fool music chess stable retrieve falcon forest park tournament

  24. Art, learning, medicine art painting beauty color figure image tone cathedral ceiling tower porch bay column vase poet rime story paper pen study logic geometry grammar noun clause copy medicine stomach ointment poison

  25. Loss of Germanic words French borrowing Lost English word poor earm people leod guilty scyldig army here warrior cempa air lyft confess andettan praise hearian

  26. Semantic differentiation French loan English word judgment doom judge deem cordial hearty power might demand ask desire wish beef ox pork swine veal calf mutton cheep

  27. Old English verbal prefixes for- (German ver-) forget, forbear, forbid with- (German mit-) withdraw, withhold to- (German zu-) ---

  28. English derivational morphemes -hood childhood, likelihood, manhood -ship friendship, kinship, hardship -dom freedom, wisdom, kingdom

  29. Romans verbal affixes Verbal prefixes inter–, counter–, re–, trans–, anti–, dis–, Verbal suffixes –able, –ible, –ent, –al, –ous, –ive

  30. The 100 Year’s War 1337-1453

  31. Rise of new middle class Craftsmen Merchants

  32. Black Death 1349

  33. Loan words from Latin adjacent conspiracy contempt custody distract frustrate genius gesture history homicide include incredible individual infancy suppress infinite innate intellect

  34. Loan words from Latin interrupt legal magnify minor moderate private necessary nervous picture polite popular prevent project submit prosody reject summary substitute

  35. Loan words from Flemish, Dutch, Low German deck dock freight rover booze gin easel etching landscape

  36. Middle English Grammar The structure of Middle English is radically different from the structure of Old English. Old English is a highly inflectional language. Middle English has very little morphology.

  37. Spelling <þ> and <ð> were gradually replaced by <th>

  38. Spelling [x]<gh> OE ME þoht thought riht right [u] <ou> or <ow> OE ME hour round hu how thu thou hus house brun brown OE ME hwæt what hwil while

  39. Consonants

  40. Phonological changes vine (Fr.) fine (Fr.) view (Fr.) few (Engl.) vile (Fr.) file (Engl.)

  41. Phonological changes [hu:zian] > [hu:zia] > [hu:z] ‘to house’ V [hu:s] [hu:s] ‘a house’ N bath bathe breath breathe life live knife knives

  42. Vowels Long vowels i: u: e: o: a: Short vowels i u e @ o a

  43. Diphthongs [iu] trewe ‘true’ [Eu] fewe ‘few’ [au] clawe ‘claw’ [Ou] bowe ‘bow’ [ai] dai ‘day’ [Ui] point ‘point’ [Oi] chois ‘choice’

  44. Geoffrey Chaucer (1340-1400)

  45. Morphosyntactic changes • Simplification of inflection/morphology • Emergence of new grammatical devices: • a. analytical verb forms • b. rigid word order

  46. Noun declension

  47. Noun declension

  48. Function of morphological case markers • Peter’s car • Der Mann gibt dem Jungen den Stift.

  49. Noun declension

  50. Noun declension