13 1 arithmetic and geometric sequences l.
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13.1 Arithmetic and Geometric Sequences . Explicit Formulas. A "sequence" (or "progression", in British English) is an ordered list of numbers; the numbers in this ordered list are called "elements" or "terms". .

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slide2
A "sequence" (or "progression", in British English) is an ordered list of numbers; the numbers in this ordered list are called "elements" or "terms".
slide3
A sequence may be named or referred to as "A" or "An". The terms of a sequence are usually named something like "ai" or "an", with the subscripted letter "i" or "n" being the "index" or counter. So the second term of a sequence might be named "a2" (pronounced "ay-sub-two"), and "a12" would designate the twelfth term.
  • Note: Sometimes sequences start with an index of n = 0, so the first term is actually a0. Then the second term would be a1. The first listed term in such a case would be called the "zero-eth" term. This method of numbering the terms is used, for example, in Javascript arrays. Don't assume that every sequence and series will start with an index of n = 1.
arithmetic sequences
Arithmetic Sequences
  • The two simplest sequences to work with are arithmetic and geometric sequences. An arithmetic sequence goes from one term to the next by always adding (or subtracting) the same value.
  • For instance, 2, 5, 8, 11, 14,... and 7, 3, –1, –5,... are arithmetic, since you add 3 and subtract 4, respectively, at each step.
slide5
The number added (or subtracted) at each stage of an arithmetic sequence is called the "common difference" d, because if you subtract (find the difference of) successive terms, you'll always get this common value.

Find the common difference and the next term of the following sequence:3, 11, 19, 27, 35,...

The difference is always 8, so d = 8.

Then the next term is 35 + 8 = 43.

slide6
For arithmetic sequences, the common difference is d, and the first term a1 is often referred to simply as "a". Since you get the next term by adding the common difference, the value of a2 is just a + d. The third term is a3 = (a + d) + d = a + 2d. The fourth term is a4 = (a + 2d) + d = a + 3d.

an = a1 + (n – 1)d

examples find a formula for a n and find the 10 th term
Examples: Find a formula for an and find the 10th term
  • 2,6,10,14,18,…
  • 17,10,3,-4,-11,-18,…
examples
Examples:
  • Find the n-th term (formula) and the first three terms of the arithmetic sequence having a4 = 93 and a8 = 65.

Since a4 and a8 are four places apart, then I know from the definition of an arithmetic sequence that a8 = a4 + 4d.

65 = 93 + 4d –28 = 4d –7 = d

65 = a + 7(–7) 65 + 49 = a114 = a

93 = a + 3(–7) 93 + 21 = a114 = a

OR

solution
Solution
  • an=114+(n-1)(-7)

=114-7n+7

  • an=121-7n
  • a1=114, a2=107, a3=100
examples10
Examples:
  • Find the n-th term (formula) and the tenth term of the arithmetic sequence having a2 = 2 and a5 = 16.
  • an=-8/3+(n-1)(14/3)
  • an =14/3n-22/3
  • a10=118/3
geometric sequences
Geometric Sequences
  • A geometric sequence goes from one term to the next by always multiplying (or dividing) by the same value.
  • So 1, 2, 4, 8, 16,... and 81, 27, 9, 3, 1, 1/3,... are geometric, since you multiply by 2 and divide by 3, respectively, at each step
slide12
The number multiplied (or divided) at each stage of a geometric sequence is called the "common ratio" r, because if you divide (find the ratio of) successive terms, you'll always get this common value.

Find the common ratio and the seventh term of the following sequence:

2/9, 2/3, 2, 6, 18,...

The ratio is always 3, so r = 3.

Then the sixth term is (18)(3) = 54 and the seventh term is (54)(3) =162

slide13
For geometric sequences, the common ratio is r, and the first term a1 is often referred to simply as "a". Since you get the next term by multiplying by the common ratio, the value of a2 is just ar. The third term is a3 = r(ar) = ar2. The fourth term is a4 = r(ar2) = ar3.

an = a1r(n – 1)

example
Example
  • Find the n-th (formula) and the 26th term of the geometric sequence with a5 = 5/4 and a12 = 160.

These two terms are 12 – 5 = 7 places apart, so, from the definition of a geometric sequence, I know that a12=a5r7

160 = (5/4)(r7) 128 = r72 = r

5/4 = a(24) = 16a5/64 = a

160 = a(211) = 2048a160/2048 =5/64= a

OR

solution16
Solution
  • an=5/64(2)(n-1)
  • an=5/128(2)n
  • a26=2,621,440
example17
Example
  • Find the n-th (formula) and the 11th term of the geometric sequence with a3 = 12 and a6 = 96.
  • an=3(2)(n-1)
  • an=3/2(2)n
  • a11=3072
assignment
Assignment
  • page 476 #2-16 even, #17-39 odd
  • Quiz 13.1-13.3 Friday