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Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava

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  1. Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Institute of Nuclear and Physical Engineering Future perspectives of nuclear energy Štefan Čerba Stefan.cerba@stuba.sk

  2. Contents

  3. Introduction

  4. Nuclear energy in global

  5. Nuclear energy in global

  6. Nuclear energy in Slovakia

  7. Nuclear power plants in Slovakia

  8. The future of nuclear energy 6,948,762,823 84,739

  9. The future of nuclear energy

  10. Classification of nuclear reactors

  11. Generation four international forum • Goals: • Sustainability, • Economy, • Safety and reliability, • Proliferation resistance and physical protection. GIF 2002 SFR – Sodium-cooled fast reactor LFR – Lead-cooled fast reactor, GFR– Gas cooled fast reactor. VHTR – Very high temperature reactor, SCWR – Supercritical water-cooled reactor, MSR – Molten salt reactor,

  12. Fast neutron spectrum

  13. Fast neutron spectrum Increasing n energy --> • Thermal spectrum: Enrichment < 5 % • Fast spectrum: Enrichment = 20 - 30 %

  14. SFR – Sodium-cooled fast reactor • Sodium coolant, • Fast neutron spectrum, • Closed fuel cycle, • Electricity production and actinide transmutation, • Operation: 550 °C -low pressure, • Oxide, carbide or metallic fuel with U,Pu and MA content, • Burnupup to 200 GWd/tHM, • SF reprocessing via PUREX. • EBR–I, Phenix, BN-600. • ASTRID - demonstrator

  15. LFR – Lead-cooled fast reactor • Liquid lead coolant, • Fast neutron spectrum, • Operation in closed fuel cycle, • Actinide transmutation, • Electricity production, • Possibility of hydrogen production, • Operation conditions: 550 °C at low pressure, • technology base:Russian α type submarines (Pb-Bi). • 2 concepts: • Reference design: 600 MWe (ELSY) – (U,Pu,MA)O2fuel • Modular design: 20 MWe (SSTAR) – (U,Pu,MA)N fuel (t=650 °C).

  16. GFR – gas cooled fast reactor • He coolant, • Fast neutron spectrum, • Closed fuel cycle, • More effective natural U utilization, • Reduction of the long-lived RAV radiotoxicity, • Operation conditions: 750 °C and • 7 MPa, • Efficient electricity generation, • Hydrogen production and process heat supply, • Innovative (U,Pu,MA)C –SiC fuel, • Unique DHR system, • ALLEGRO – demonstrator.

  17. VHTR – very high temperature reactor • Helium coolant, • Graphite moderator, • Thermal neutron spectrum, • Once-through U fuel cycle, • Cogeneration of electricity and hydrogen, • Process heat applications, • Operation at high temperatures 900 - 1000 °C and high pressure 7 MPa, • UO2 – SiC fuel, • Very high thermal efficiency.

  18. SCWR – Supercritical water-cooled reactor • Operation above the TD critical point of water(t=374 °C, p=22MPa, ρ=0.32 g/cm3), • Either thermal or fast neutron spectrum, • Possible once-though or closed fuel cycle, • Base-load electricity production, • Thermal efficiency η>50 %, • Investment and operation costs comparable with LWRs, • UO2 fuel, • target burnup - 45 GWd/tHM.

  19. MSR – molten salt reactor • liquid fluoride salt coolant, • UF, PuF – ZrF, NaF, LiF, • Thermal and epithermal neutron spectrum, • Excellent neutron balance, • Actinide transmutation, • Electricity generation, • Hydrogen production, • Process heat supply, • Continuous refueling, • Possible addition of actinide feeds during operation, • Th-U Breeder fuel cycle.

  20. ESNII - European Sustainable Nuclear Industrial Initiative

  21. “The country which first develops a breeder reactor will have a great competitive advantage in atomic energy.” E. Fermi

  22. Backup slide 1

  23. Backup slide 2

  24. Backup slide 3

  25. Backup slide 4

  26. Backup slide 5

  27. Backup slide 6