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Data issues in the U.S. anti-trafficking policies and activities: work-in-progress. Anchalee (Joy) Panigabutra-Roberts Assistant Professor Catalog &Metadata / Multicultural Services UNL Libraries Women’s and Gender Studies Faculty Affiliate email@example.com
Overview. • Human trafficking : definitions. • U.N. Palermo Protocol. • U.S. Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended (TVPA). • U.S.’s local/state anti-trafficking activities. • Data issues to be concerned.
U.N.’s Palermo Protocol : definition. Trafficking in persons - defined as: “…the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs; …” Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons … United Nations. 2000. http://www.uncjin.org/Documents/Conventions/dcatoc/final_documents_2/convention_%20traff_eng.pdf
Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended (TVPA):definition. • The Trafficking Victims Protection Act defines "severe forms of trafficking in persons" as: • (a) sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person is induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age; or • (b) the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labor or services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage or slavery. **Note: U.S. excludes organ trafficking in its def. **
How big is the problem? : Estimates. • ILO’s estimate: • 12.3 million at any given time • U.S. Government’s estimate (2006) : • 800,000 across national borders • 80 % = women and girls • 50 % = minors • Most into sex trade. Source: U.S. Dept. of State: Trafficking in Persons Report 2007: http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2007/
U.S.’s Prosecution (FY 2006). 168 investigations. Charged 111 individuals Obtained 98 convictions TVPA – sentenced up to 20 years’ imprisonment. Average sentence in FY2005 = 8.5 yrs. Innocence Lost National Initiative (FY2006) 103 open investigations 157 arrests 76 indictments 43 convictions. Federal budget (FY2006): $28.5 million. Crime statistics: Source: U.S. Dept. of State: Trafficking in Persons Report 2007: http://www.state.gov/g/tip/rls/tiprpt/2007/
U.S. Dept of State: Estimate (2003) • U.S. Government’s estimates of victims trafficked into the U.S. annually vs. the numbers of victims found: • 2003 report: 18,000 – 20,000 victims. • Source: U.S. Dept of State. Assessment of U.S. Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons (August 2003). http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/23598.pdf • 2004 report : 14,500-17,500 victims. • Source: U.S. Dept of Justice. Assessment of U.S. Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons (June 2004) http://www.usdoj.gov/crt/crim/wetf/us_assessment_2004.pdf • 2005 report : The incongruity between the estimated number of victims trafficked into the United States—between 14,500 and 17,500—and the number of victims found—only 611 in the last four years. • Source: U.S. Dept of Justice. Assessment of U.S. Activities to Combat Trafficking in Persons (September 2005) http://www.usdoj.gov/ag/annualreports/tr2005/assessmentofustipactivities.pdf
U.S.’s Domestic Responses: Center for Women Policy Studies. U.S. PACT (state laws – including Nebraska- and task forces) http://www.centerwomenpolicy.org/programs/trafficking/default.asp • By 2007, 34 states including Nebraska, enacted laws to make trafficking a state felony offense.
Minnesota: survey of service providers. • 188 surveyed; 119 completed surveys • 43% have served at least one victim (mostly sex trafficking) • How many victims are currently working with? • 14 labors + 200 sex trafficking victims cited. • Asked for estimates served in the past 3 years: • 55 labors + up to 500 sex trafficked victims = 185 per year total. • U.S. annual average with this no. = 9,250. • Note: The data are not based on the actual number collected officially by the organizations. How reliable are the data? • Source: Human Trafficking in Minnesota: a report to the Minnesota legislature (Sept. 2006): http://www.ojp.state.mn.us/cj/publications/Reports/2006_Human_Trafficking.pdf
Civil Society & Breaking Free (2005-06). • Served 56 international trafficked victims • Civil Society alone = 38 people • Source: Civil Society’s presentation, 2007. • More information: • Civil Society. http://civsociety.org/ • Breaking Free. http://www.breakingfree.net/
Ohio. Wilson, Jeremy M., and Erin Dalton (2007). Human trafficking in Ohio: markets, responses, and considerations. Santa Monica, CA: Rand. • Study sites: Toledo and Columbus. • From the content analysis of local newspapers (January 2003 through June 2006) and in the interviews of criminal justice officers and social service providers – 26 respondents from 19 agencies (February through July 2007), identified 15 cases in the two case study sites. • Available in pdf: http://www.rand.org/pubs/monographs/2007/RAND_MG689.pdf
Wisconsin. Hidden in Plain Sight (2008). • Survey of justice systems officers and service providers for the entire state – no. of victims encountered since 2000. • Initial survey: • 261 Justice system agencies = 57-122 cases • 136 Service providers = 134-193 cases • Followup survey: • 60-200 cases reported (urban and rural areas). • ftp://doaftp04.doa.state.wi.us/doadocs/Human_Trafficking_Report_Final.pdf
Nebraska’s responses. • Anti-trafficking law (2006): http://uniweb.legislature.ne.gov/LegalDocs/view.php?page=s2808031000 – did not specify or fund state agencies to collect statistics on human trafficking. • Attorney General Report in consultation with the Nebraska Dept of Health and Human Services to Clerk of the Nebraska Legislature (2006). (Personal copy obtained from the clerk per my request). • No agencies collecting data on human trafficking to be reported to the Attorney General Office (as of 2006). • The pilot program proposed by HHS to assist prostitution-related victims (education and treatment) was denied funding by the governor.
Data issues to be concerned: • Caveat in using the federal data on human trafficking: • High no. in national reports vs. low nos. in local findings. • High budget in anti-trafficking funding raised an accountability issue as well as an ethical issue in research. • U.S. Government’s double speak: • TIPS report to penalize countries with weak anti-trafficking effort vs. U.S. own practice (not all states have anti-trafficking law, nor having a good, systematic data collection practice). • Data collection needed to be done to understand the situations in NE.
Additional Resources: • References from the Internet: http://del.icio.us/aproberts • Worldwide resources (books, media, etc., plus journal articles on the topic): http://worldcat.org/search?q=human+trafficking
Thank YOU! Any questions?