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History of South Africa
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  1. History of South Africa

  2. Original in habitants • The San (sahn) • Lived in small communities, hunting and gathering • The Khoikhoi (koy koy) • Nomadic herders large flocks of cheep and cattle • Bantu speaking people • Skilled in iron making • Farmers • Migrated from central to southern Africa • They lived peacefully • Democratic rule of a king

  3. The Europeans • 1652 the Dutch East India Company established a supply base at Cape of Good Hope • Established a thriving settlement known as Cape Colony • French and German setted as well • Collectively called themselves Afrikaners or Boers • Traded with the Africans • Began to demand more land • Khoikhoi rebelled • Dutch easily win • Forced many into slavery

  4. Dutch lost control to the British • British moved into the area • Quickly take over the Cape of Good Hope • Afrikaners farmers (Boers) resented British rule • wanted to preserve their culture • wanted to continue slave labor

  5. The Great Trek • To rid themselves of British rule and to preserve their Afrikaner culture • Headed northeast • Meet with great resistance • Xhosa (koh-suh) and the Zulus fought them fiercely • Boers were able to establish two republics (1852-1854) • Transvaal • Orange Free State

  6. Diamonds, Gold and War • 1879 diamonds were discovered in Transvaal • 1886 gold was discovered in same area • British colonists rushed into area to claim land • Black Africans moved to the area for work in the mines • Result: Anglo-Boer War • British won the war • Union of South Africa is born • under the British Empire • combined the two Afrikaner Republics and their two colonies

  7. Beginning of Apartheid • Afrikaners believed in the superiority of the white race and their culture • Laws were passed to support this idea • African National Congress works to unite all people • Slogan “We are one people” • Still law continue to pass that separate the races • 1948 Afrikaner Nationalist Party won control of the gov • Apartheid (separateness) becomes the official government policy • Population is divided into four racial groups • Africans, Whites, Colored, Asians

  8. Policy and Practices under Apartheid • Harshest on blacks • Series of Pass laws • Could not vote • Could not travel freely • Had to carry a passbook • Restricted where blacks would work and live • Native Land Act: confined to reserves • Groups Area Act was passed • Divided 13% of the land into 10 homelands (bantustans) for blacks to live • Blacks living in cities were removed to townships • Later then would be moved to homelands

  9. South African HomelandsSet up according to ethnic line

  10. Resistance • Sharpeville • Demonstrated against the passlaws in the early 1960s • 69 were killed, 180 injured • Lead to harsher laws • Convinced many blacks that nonviolence wasn’t the answer • Umkhonto We Sizwe “Spear of the Nation” was formed • Leader lawyer named Nelson Mandela • ANC and Pan-African Congress were banned • Nelson Mandela was imprisoned

  11. Forced Underground • The ANC and PAC were forced underground • Used guerrilla warfare and sabotage to protest • In 1961 South Africa declared itself a republic • Left the British Common Wealth • Due to internal protest pressure on Britain to do something • New Constitution was written that basically put all political power in white hands

  12. Resistance continues • Soweto • Students peaceful protest a new law • Made Afrikaans the language to be used in schools • Unarmed students were fired upon • Led to more protests • Led to hundreds dead

  13. Global outrage • Death of Steve Biko (1977) • Archbishop Desmond Tutu called for international pressure • United States responded by banning South African imports, making loans and allowing investments • 1984 Olympic Zola Budd

  14. “Apartheid must go” • South Africa ended the pass laws (’80s) • People could not be removed to the homelands by force • Frederik W. de Klerk became president in 1989 • Lifted ban on ANC, released Mandela from prison, repealed segregation laws • 1991 apartheid racial separation laws ended

  15. 1994 • First universal suffrage election held in South Africa • Nelson Mandela becomes president