TOPOGRAPHY OF THE SEAFLOOR NOTES. Area of the continent (land) that is underwater. Area that has been flooded and covered with water over many years. This is made up of continental crust (mainly granite). The east coast’s original shoreline used to be 70 miles further out to sea.
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Used by nations as a legal boundary.
The east coast’s shelf is a lot larger than the west coast’s
shorter shelf.CONTINENTAL SHELF
The steep sloping edge of the continent that extends from the edge of the shelf to the ocean floor.CONTINENTAL SLOPE
A mound of sediments that separates the continental slope from the ocean bottom.
The sediments found here is terrigenous (found from land), but the floor here is made of basalt (ocean floor).CONTINENTAL RISE
Very flat area of the ocean floor at the edge of the continental rise.ABYSSAL PLAIN
Magma oozes out of these valleys which harden into new seafloor.RIFT VALLEY
The biggest mountain on earth is Mauna Loa (Hawaii).
Seamounts build-up over time underwater (usually over a hot spot) and eventually break the surface of the water.
Seamounts above water turn into islands.
When they move away from the hot spot, the seamount will start to “deflate” and go back underwater.SEAMOUNTS
After the seamount becomes an island, coral reefs typically form around the island.
The point in which the island subsides back underwater, and the coral reef is still in tact, it becomes an atoll.atolls
When seamounts are above water, they experience a lot of weathering and get worn-down and flatten out over time.
Guyots are the “deflated” seamounts that have subsided back underwater (the coral reef is no longer present).GUYOTS
These are the deepest places on Earth.
NOT associated with mid-ocean ridges.
Typically formed from earthquakes and tectonic activity.TRENCHES