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Biology 211 Anatomy & Physiology I. Orientation to Anatomy. Throughout this course, we will focus on three "major concepts" which are central to the understanding of anatomy and physiology: a) b) c). - Protection of internal body environment from external

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biology 211 anatomy physiology i

Biology 211Anatomy & Physiology I

Orientation to Anatomy

slide2

Throughout this course, we will focus on three "major concepts" which are central to the understanding of anatomy and physiology:a) b) c)

slide3

- Protection of internal body environment from external

environment - Maintenance of stable internal environment

- Responsiveness

- Ingestion, digestion, elimination

- Metabolism

- Excretion

- Reproduction

First major concept: All complex animals share a number of basic physiological functions for which anatomical structures are specifically adapted, including:

slide4

Second major concept: The structures and functions of all complex animals are based on a “structural heirarchy”

These are interdependent.

Abnormalilties at one level will affect all higher levels

slide5

Example #1:Your body consists of trillions of cells of at least 400 different typesAbout a dozen types: Lymphocytes One type of lymphocyte: CD4 cellSuppose a virus attacks and destroys your CD4 cells, while all other cells (including all other lymphocytes) remain healthy.

slide6

Example #2:Your body consists of trillions of cells of at least 400 different typesFour types found in pancreatic isletsOne type of islet cell: beta cell, which produces insulinSuppose your body attacks and destroys the beta cells, while all other cells (including other islet cells) remain healthy.

slide7

Example #3:Your body consists of trillions of cells of at least 400 different typesOne type of cell in nervous system: oligodendrocyteOligodendrocytes: dozens of organellesOne organelle: plasma membrane Plasma membrane: hundreds of types of moleculesOne type of molecule: myelinSuppose your body attacks and destroys the myelin in the plasma membranes of oligodendrocytes, while all molecules and all other cells remain healthy.

slide8

Third major concept:Homeostasis:A state of "dynamic (changing) equilibrium (balance)" in which the body's internal environment is maintained within narrow limits even when the external environment changes significantly.For example: You must maintain a steady internal body temperature of approximately 37oC even if the external temperature changes from -20oC to over 100oC.Homeostasis requires communication among many different organelles, cells, tissues, and organs

slide9

Homeostasis involves feedback mechanisms:

Positive Feedback:

Examples:

Negative Feedback:

Examples:

slide10

Positive Feedback

Blood Clotting

slide12

Eating increases blood glucose.

Blood glucose stimulates pancreatic islets to secrete insulin.

Insulin stimulates muscle cells and liver cells to absorb glucose from blood.

Absorption of glucose by liver & muscle lowers its concentration in blood.

This returns blood glucose to original level

Negative Feedback:

Concentration of glucose in blood

slide13

Fasting lowers blood glucose.

Blood glucose stimulates pancreatic islets to secrete glucagon.

Glucagon stimulates muscle cells and liver cells to release glucose back into blood.

Release of glucose by liver & muscle increases its concentration in blood.

This returns blood glucose to original level

Negative Feedback:

Concentration of glucose in blood

slide14

Approximate normal ranges for selected

blood measurements:

Arterial pH 7.35 - 7.43

Bicarbonate 21.3 - 28.5 mEq/L

Sodium 136-151 mEq/L

Calcium 4.6 - 5.2 mEq/L

Oxygen 17.2 - 22 ml / 100 ml

Urea 12 - 35 mg / 100 ml

Amino acids 3.3 - 5.1 mg / 100 ml

Protein 6.5 - 8 g / 100 ml

Total lipids 350 - 850 mg / 100 ml

Glucose 75 - 110 mg / 100 ml

slide15

Next: A few basic concepts of anatomy

which we will use throughout this course

1) Planes or sections

2) Terms indicating relative positions

3) Regions of the body

4) Primary and secondary body cavities

5) Three-dimensional relationships

slide20

2) In discussing parts of the human body, we also use a number of terms of relative position:

Superior (cranial):

Inferior (caudal):

Anterior (ventral):

Posterior (dorsal):

Medial:

Lateral:

Proximal:

Distal:

Superficial:

Deep:

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You should be able to identify the regions shown on these diagrams.

For example: The region of the upper

limb between the

shoulder and elbow is the_________ region

For example: The _________ region is immediately distal

to the antebracheal region

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5) Finally: As we discuss the human body, get your brain to think three-dimensionally and focus on relationships . . .