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Chapter 5

Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives

All presentation sources are used in accordance with the Multimedia Fair Use Guidelines and are not for copying and pasting by other users.

strategic goals and tactical objectives
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Isolation
    • One of the primary strategic goals
      • Physically securing and maintaining the emergency scene by establishing perimeters
      • Denying entry
      • Evacuation or protection in place
strategic goals and tactical objectives1
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Isolation
    • Isolation perimeter
      • Outer perimeter
        • Boundary established to prevent access by the public
        • Established even before the material is positively identified
strategic goals and tactical objectives2
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Isolation
    • Initial Isolation Distance and Initial Isolation Zone
      • A distance within which all persons should be considered for evacuation in all directions
      • Circular zone defined by the ERG
strategic goals and tactical objectives3
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Isolation
    • Initial Isolation Distance and Initial Isolation Zone
      • A distance within which all persons should be considered for evacuation in all directions
      • Circular zone defined by the ERG
strategic goals and tactical objectives4
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Isolation
    • Protective Action Zone
      • Area immediately adjacent to and downwind from the initial isolation zone
        • Imminent danger within 30 minutes

Protective Action Zone

Initial Isolation Zone

Spill

1/2 Downwind Distance

1/2 Downwind Distance

strategic goals and tactical objectives5
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Isolation
    • Hazard Control Zones
      • Hot
        • Exclusion
      • Warm
        • Contamination Reduction
      • Cold
        • Support
strategic goals and tactical objectives6
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Protection
    • The overall goal of ensuring the safety of responders
      • Use and wear appropriate PPE
      • Use decontamination procedures
      • Provide emergency medical care
      • Conduct preentry medical monitoring
      • Conduct safety assessments
strategic goals and tactical objectives7
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Protection
    • Rescue
      • Difficult strategy to implement for first responders to take
        • Fight the urge
          • Never rush to conduct a rescue without proper PPE, planning, and coordination
      • Decision made by the IC
strategic goals and tactical objectives8
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Protection
    • Awareness – Level Actions
      • Direct people to a safe area of refuge
      • Instruct victims to move to an area that is less dangerous
      • Direct contaminated or potentially contaminated victims to an isolation point
        • Decon area
      • Give directions to a large number of people for mass decontamination
strategic goals and tactical objectives9
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Protection
    • Operational – Level Actions
      • Conduct searches during reconnaissance or defensive activities
      • Conduct searches on the edge of the hot zone
      • Direct victims to the decontamination area
      • Assist with decontamination
      • Assist with the identification of victims
      • Give instructions to a large number of people for a mass decontamination
strategic goals and tactical objectives10
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Protection
    • Operational – Level Actions
      • Conduct searches during reconnaissance or defensive activities
      • Conduct searches on the edge of the hot zone
      • Direct victims to the decontamination area
      • Assist with decontamination
      • Assist with the identification of victims
      • Give instructions to a large number of people for a mass decontamination
strategic goals and tactical objectives11
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Protection
    • Exposure Protection
      • People
        • Most important exposure consideration
        • Isolation zones
      • Protecting the environment
        • Diking a storm drain
      • Protecting property
        • Not yet involved but threatened
        • Vapor suppression with a hose line
strategic goals and tactical objectives12
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Shovels
        • Building earthen dams
      • Salvage covers
        • Making catch basins
      • Charged hoselines
        • Creating diversion channels
strategic goals and tactical objectives13
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Operational level
        • Expected to take protective actions but not stop the release
        • Defensive confinement actions
          • Absorption
          • Adsorption
          • Blanketing / covering
          • Dam, dike, diversion and retention
          • Vapor suppression
strategic goals and tactical objectives14
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Absorption
        • Physical and/or chemical event occurring during contact between materials that have a attraction for each other
        • This results in one material being retained in the other
          • Sawdust
          • Clays
          • Charcoal
        • Material becomes contaminated
strategic goals and tactical objectives15
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Adsorption
        • Different from absorption in that the molecules of the hazardous material physically adhere to the adsorbent
        • Tend to not swell
        • Organic materials
          • Activated charcoal
          • Carbon
strategic goals and tactical objectives16
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Blanketing / Covering
        • Covering the spill to prevent dispersion of materials such as powders or dusts
          • Tarps
          • Plastic sheeting
          • Salvage covers
          • Foam
        • Be careful for interactions between materials
strategic goals and tactical objectives17
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Dike, Dam, Diversion and Retention
        • Underflow
        • Overflow
        • Construction of curbs
        • Divert away from drain
strategic goals and tactical objectives18
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Vapor Suppression
        • Action taken to reduce the emission of vapors
          • Firefighting foams
            • Miscible
            • Alcohol resistance (AR)
          • Application Methods
            • Roll-on
            • Bank-down
            • Rain-down
strategic goals and tactical objectives19
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Vapor Suppression
        • Firefighting Foams
          • Expansion Ratio
            • Is the volume of finished foam that results from a unit volume of foam solution
            • The greater the expansion ratio is, the thicker the foam blanket
          • Drain Time
            • Time required for ¼ of the total liquid to drain from the foam
strategic goals and tactical objectives20
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Vapor Suppression
        • Firefighting Foams
          • Selection of proper foam concentrate for vapor suppression is important
            • Do not cover water reactive materials
          • Water destroys and washes away foam blankets
            • Do not use water streams in conjunction with the application of foam
          • A material must be below its boiling point
            • Foam cannot seal vapors of boiling

liquids

strategic goals and tactical objectives21
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Vapor Suppression
        • Firefighting Foams
          • If the film that precedes the foam blanket is not visible, the foam blanket may be unreliable
            • Reapply aerated foam periodically until the spill is completely covered
strategic goals and tactical objectives22
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Other Spill Control Tactics
        • Ventilation
          • Controlling the movement of air by natural or mechanical means
            • Removing or dispersing the airborne particles, vapors or gases
            • Equipment must be explosion proof if used in a flammable atmosphere
strategic goals and tactical objectives23
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Other Spill Control Tactics
        • Vapor Dispersion
          • Is the action taken to direct or influence the course of airborne hazardous materials
            • Pressurized streams of water from hoselines
            • Unattended master streams
              • Reduces the concentration
          • Must confine and analyze runoff water
strategic goals and tactical objectives24
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Other Spill Control Tactics
        • Dispersion
          • Involves breaking up or dispersing a hazardous material that has spilled on a solid or liquid surface
            • Uses both chemical and biological agents
            • Typically used on oceanic hydrocarbon spills
          • Often has the unfortunate effect of spreading the material over a wide area
            • May require approval from governmental agencies
strategic goals and tactical objectives25
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Other Spill Control Tactics
        • Dilution
          • Is the application of water to a water soluble material to reduce the hazard
          • Used mostly during decontamination operations
          • Increases the spill size
strategic goals and tactical objectives26
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Other Spill Control Tactics
        • Dissolution
          • The process of dissolving a gas in water
          • Only used for water soluble gases
            • Anhydrous ammonia
            • Chlorine
              • May create hydrochloric acid on the ground
strategic goals and tactical objectives27
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Spill Control / Confinement
    • Confinement Tactics
      • Other Spill Control Tactics
        • Neutralization
          • Raising or lowering the pH of corrosive materials to render them neutral (pH 7)
          • Sometimes difficult to do
            • Shifts to much in opposite direction
          • Conducted under the direction of individuals with expertise in this area
strategic goals and tactical objectives28
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Leak Control / Containment
    • Leak
      • The physical breach in a container through which the product is escaping
    • Leak Control
      • Stop or limit the escape
      • Contain the release by either
        • Keeping it in its original container
        • Transferring it to a new one
          • Overpack drum
    • Considered offensive actions
strategic goals and tactical objectives29
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Leak Control / Containment
    • Leak
      • The physical breach in a container through which the product is escaping
    • Leak Control
      • Stop or limit the escape
      • Contain the release by either
        • Keeping it in its original container
        • Transferring it to a new one
          • Overpack drum
strategic goals and tactical objectives30
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Leak Control / Containment
    • Considered offensive actions
      • Must be performed by at least a technician except
        • It can be turned off by a remote valve
        • It involves situations dealing with
          • Gasoline
          • Diesel
          • LPG
          • CNG
        • Must have operations level training and proper PPE
strategic goals and tactical objectives31
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • The strategy of minimizing the damage, harm and effect of fire at a haz mat incident
    • Typical fire control tactics
      • Controlled burn
      • Exposure protection
      • Withdrawal
      • Extinguishment
strategic goals and tactical objectives32
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Controlled Burn
      • A nonintervention control tactic
        • Personnel or environmental risks are determined to be too great for extinguishment
          • Let burn until product is consumed
            • Pesticides
            • Flammable liquids
        • Extinguish burning spills and leaks completely only when the flow of materials has been controlled
          • Use hoselines to decrease the intensity of the fire
strategic goals and tactical objectives33
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Exposure Protection
      • Preventing the spread of fire to nearby fuels
        • Buildings
          • Fog patterns
        • Containers
        • Tanks
          • Solid streams
            • 500-1,000 GPM
      • Do not assume that the relief valve is operating effectively or able to keep up with the increasing vapor pressure
strategic goals and tactical objectives34
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Withdrawal
      • May become a last resort if an incident
        • Rapidly deteriorates
        • Threat of explosion
        • BLEVE
        • Mass fire exists
      • Resources may not be available or are overwhelmed
strategic goals and tactical objectives35
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Extinguishment
      • Offensive control tactic
      • May be necessary to extinguish the fire before containing the material
        • Fire around a leaking gasoline tanker
        • Turning off a pressurized gas fire
strategic goals and tactical objectives36
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Water Fire Streams
      • Must avoid making the problem worse
        • Can dramatically increase the intensity of the spill
      • Solid streams
        • Can cause materials to spread / splash
      • Fog streams
        • Effective at suppressing vapors
strategic goals and tactical objectives37
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Portable Extinguishers
      • Limited by the method of application
        • Must get within a few feet of the fire
          • Too close for the operations level responder
        • Meant for small fires
strategic goals and tactical objectives38
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Foam Fire Streams
      • Finished foam can be effective for suppressing vapors and extinguishing many flammable liquids
    • Foam Principles
      • All foam concentrates in use today are of the mechanical type
        • They must be proportioned and aerated
          • Class A foam
          • Class B foam
strategic goals and tactical objectives39
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Foam Principles
      • Class B foam
        • Regular fluoroprotein
        • Regular AFFF
          • Will not extinguish polar solvents (alcohol-type) fuels
            • AR-AFFF
        • Separating
          • Creates barrier between fuel and burning vapors
        • Cooling
          • Lowers the temperature of fuel
        • Suppressing
          • Prevents the release of additional vapors
strategic goals and tactical objectives40
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • How foam is generated
      • Foam Concentrate
        • Liquid found in a foam storage container before the introduction of water
          • 1%
          • 3%
          • 6%
      • Foam Solution
        • Mixture in the proper ratio of foam concentrate and water before it is mixed with air
strategic goals and tactical objectives41
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • How foam is generated
      • Foam Proportioner
        • Device that mixes foam concentrate in the proper ratio with water
      • Finished Foam
        • Completed product after air is introduced into the foam solution and after it leaves the nozzle or aerator
strategic goals and tactical objectives42
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • How foam is generated
      • Four elements of high quality foam
        • Foam concentrate
        • Water
        • Air
        • Mechanical agitation
      • Finished foam requires two stages
        • Water is mixed with the foam liquid
        • Aeration stage
strategic goals and tactical objectives43
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • How foam is generated
      • Foam appliances
        • Must hydraulically match each other
          • Unsatisfactory foam
          • No foam
strategic goals and tactical objectives44
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Specific Foam Concentrates
      • Regular Protein Foam
        • Virtually nonexistent
        • 3%-6% concentrations
        • Excellent water retention
        • High hear resistance
      • Fluoroprotein Foam
        • Combination of protein and synthetic based foam
        • Excellent for subsurface injection into a tank
          • Oleophobic (oil shedding)
          • 3%-6% concentrations
strategic goals and tactical objectives45
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Specific Foam Concentrates
      • Film Forming Fluoroprotein Foam (FFFP)
        • Foam concentrate based on fluoroprotein foam technology with AFFF concentrate capabilities
        • 3%-6% concentrations
        • Multipurpose
          • Polar solvents and hydrocarbon fuels
        • Storage
          • Wide temperature storage ability
        • Premixable
        • Subsurface Injection
        • Plunge into fuel
strategic goals and tactical objectives46
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Specific Foam Concentrates
      • Aqueous Film Forming Foam (AFFF)
        • Created by the navy to increase effectiveness of extinguishing liquid fires on aircraft carriers
          • Project Light Water
        • Aqueous Film
          • Water is drained from the foam blanket
          • Floats on fuels
        • Completely synthetic
        • 1%, 3%, or 6% concentrations
strategic goals and tactical objectives47
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Specific Foam Concentrates
      • Alcohol Resistant AR-AFFF
        • Used on polar solvents
      • High-Expansion Foam
        • Special-purpose foam
        • Low water content
          • Concealed spaces
          • Fixed-extinguishing systems
          • Class A fire applications
strategic goals and tactical objectives48
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Fire Control
    • Specific Foam Concentrates
      • Emulsifiers
        • Mixes with fuel
        • Renders it non-flammable
        • Should only be used with fuels that are 1 inch or less in depth
strategic goals and tactical objectives49
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Recovery and Termination
    • Recovery
      • Returning the incident scene and responders to a pre-incident level of readiness
        • Return the operational area to a safe condition
        • Debrief personnel before they leave the scene
        • Return equipment and personnel of all involved agencies to the condition they were in before the incident
          • On-Scene Recovery
          • On-Scene Debriefing
          • Operational Recovery
strategic goals and tactical objectives50
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives
  • Recovery and Termination
    • Termination
      • Involves two procedural actions
        • Critiques
          • Mandated by OSHA
        • After-action analysis
          • Operational weakness
          • Training needs
          • Necessary procedural changes
          • Required additional resources
strategic goals and tactical objectives51
Strategic Goals and Tactical Objectives

Works Cited

“Hazardous Materials for First Responders” International Fire Service Training Association

3rd Edition 2004 Print