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1. 2. 3. 4. C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T. When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to. Describe the patterns and changes in what goods and services are produced in the United States.

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c h a p t e r c h e c k l i s t

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C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T
  • When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to
  • Describe the patterns and changes in what goods and services are produced in the United States.

Describe the patterns and changes in how goods and services are produced in the United States.

  • Describe for whom goods and services are produced in the United States.

Use the circular flow model to provide a picture of how households, firms, and governments interact to determine what, how, and for whom goods and services are produced.

2 1 what goods are produced
2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED?
  • What We Consume
    • People buy millions of different goods and services.
    • We can describe what people buy and consume only if we classify goods and services in large groups.
    • Let’s look at the items that people spend most on.
2 1 what goods are produced1
2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED?

Figure 2.1(a) shows

what we consume.

Americans spend the largest share of their income on:

  • Medical care
  • Housing
  • Transportation
  • Food
  • Recreation
2 1 what goods are produced2
2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED?

Figure 2.1(b) shows

that Americans spend:

  • A falling share of total expenditure on food
  • and other necessities.
  • An increasing share on services, such as meals away from home
2 1 what goods are produced3
2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED?
  • What We Produce
    • Businesses located in the United States produce most of the goods and services that people in the United States buy.
    • Businesses in the rest of the world produce goods and services that the United States imports.
    • The largest part of what we produce today is services, not goods.
2 1 what goods are produced4
2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED?
  • Figure 2.2 shows the largest five items of services produced.

And the largest five items of goods produced.

2 1 what goods are produced5
2.1 WHAT GOODS ARE PRODUCED?
  • What We Buy from the Rest of the World

Figure 2.3 shows the five largest items that we buy and import from the rest of the world.

2 2 how are goods produced
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?

Factors of production

The productive resources used to produce goods and services.

Factors of production are grouped into four categories:

  • Land
  • Labor
  • Capital
  • Entrepreneurship
2 2 how are goods produced1
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Land
  • The “gifts of nature” that we use to produce goods and services. All the things we call natural resources.
  • Labor
  • Work time and work effort that people devote to producing goods and services
2 2 how are goods produced2
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Capital
  • Tools, instruments, machines, buildings, and other constructions that have been produced in the past and that businesses now use to produce goods and services.
  • Entrepreneurship
  • The human resource that organizes labor, land, and capital--entrepreneurscome up with ideas about what and how to produce, make business decisions, and bear the risks that arise from these decisions.
2 2 how are goods produced3
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Land

Figure 2.4(a) shows that almost 50 percent of the land in the United States forest, parks, and water.

Agricultural land is about 47 percent of the total and is decreasing slightly.

Urban land is about 5 percent of the total and is increasing slightly.

2 2 how are goods produced4
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?

Figure 2.4(b) shows the urban distribution.

A quarter lives in the six largest cities.

Almost a third live in the ten largest cities.

More than a half lives in cities that exceed 1 million.

2 2 how are goods produced5
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?

Figure 2.5 shows how long the known reserves of nonrenewable energy resources will last at the current growth rates of use.

New reserves are constantly being discovered.

2 2 how are goods produced6
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Labor
    • The quantity of labor depends on the size of the working age population and the number of people in that age group that decides to take a job.
    • The quality of labor depends on human capital.
    • Human capital
    • The knowledge and skill that people obtain from education, on-the-job training, and work experience.
2 2 how are goods produced7
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?

Figure 2.6

shows the

U.S. labor

force and

how it has

changed

since 1980.

2 2 how are goods produced8
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Figure 2.7 shows measures of human capital and how they have changed since 1910.
2 2 how are goods produced9
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Capital
    • In addition to human capital, economists distinguish between two meanings of capital—financial capital and physical capital.
    • Financial capital consists of the funds that firms use to buy physical capital.
    • The factor of production is physical capital.
    • The value of capital grows steadily over time.
2 2 how are goods produced10
2.2 HOW ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Entrepreneurship
    • The quantity and quality of entrepreneurship is hard to describe and measure.
    • But we can easily recognize brilliant entrepreneurs by their enormous financial success.
    • Sam Walton (Wal-Mart), Bill Gates (Microsoft), and Michael Dell (Dell Computers) are examples of outstanding entreprenuers.
2 3 for whom are goods produced
2.3 FOR WHOM ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Factors of production are paid incomes:
  • Rent
  • Income paid for the use of land.
  • Wages
  • Income paid for the services of labor.
  • Interest
  • Income paid for the use of capital.
2 3 for whom are goods produced1
2.3 FOR WHOM ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Profit (or loss)
  • Income earned by an entrepreneur for running a business.
  • Functional distribution of income
  • The percentage distribution of income among the factors of production.
  • Personal distribution of income
  • The percentage distribution of income among individual persons.
2 3 for whom are goods produced2
2.3 FOR WHOM ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Figure 2.8(a) shows the functional distribution of income:
  • Labor income 72%

Proprietors’ income 9%

  • Personal rental income 2%

Corporate income 9 %

Net interest income 8%

2 3 for whom are goods produced3
2.3 FOR WHOM ARE GOODS PRODUCED?
  • Figure 2.8(b) shows the personal distribution of income.

The poorest 20% earned only 5% of total income.

The richest 20% earned 47% of total income.

2 4 circular flows
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Circular flow model
  • A model of the economy that shows:
  • The circular flow of expenditures and incomes that
  • result from decision makers’ choices and the way those
  • choices interact in markets to determine what, how, and
  • for whom goods and services are produced.
2 4 circular flows1
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Households and Firms
    • Households
    • Individuals or people living together as decision-making units.
    • Firms
    • Institutions that organize production of goods and services.
2 4 circular flows2
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Markets
    • A market is any arrangement that brings buyers and sellers together and enables them to get information and do business with each other.
    • Factor marketsare markets in which factors of production are bought and sold.
    • Goods marketsare markets in which goods and services are bought and sold.
2 4 circular flows3
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Real Flows and Money Flows
  • In factor markets:
  • Households supply factors of production
  • Firms hire factors of production.
  • In goods markets:
  • Firms supply goods and services produced.
  • Households buy goods and services.
2 4 circular flows4
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Real Flows and Money Flows
  • These are the real flows in the economy
  • Money flows run in the opposite direction to the real flows.
2 4 circular flows5
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Real Flows and Money Flows
  • Firms pay households incomes for the services of factors of production.
  • Households pay firms for the goods and services they buy.
  • These are the money flows.
  • The blue flows are incomes.
  • The red flows are expenditures.
2 4 circular flows6
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Governments
    • We divide governments into two broad levels:
      • Federal government
      • State and local government
    • Federal Government
    • The federal government’s major expenditures are to provide:
      • Goods and services
      • Social security and welfare benefits
      • Transfers to state and local governments
2 4 circular flows7
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • The federal government finances its expenditures by collecting taxes.
  • The main taxes are:
    • Personal income taxes
    • Corporate (business) taxes
    • Social security taxes

During the early 2000s, the federal government is spending and collecting in taxes more than $2 trillion a year—about 20 cents in every dollar earned.

2 4 circular flows8
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • State and Local Governments
  • State and local governments expenditures provide:
    • Goods and services
    • Welfare benefits
  • State and local governments finance these expenditures by collecting taxes.
  • The main taxes levied are:
    • Sales taxes
    • Property taxes
    • State income taxes
2 4 circular flows9
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Government in the Circular Flow

Households and firms pay taxes and receive transfers.

Governments buy goods and services from firms.

2 4 circular flows10
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Federal Government Expenditures
  • Figure 2.11(a) shows federal government expenditures.
2 4 circular flows11
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Federal Government Revenue
  • Figure 2.11(b) shows federal government revenue.
2 4 circular flows12
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • Federal Government Expenditures and Revenue
    • National debt
    • The total amount that the government has borrowed to make expenditures that exceed tax revenue—to run a government budget deficit.
    • During the early 2000s, the federal government’s budget is in deficit and the national debt is increasing.
2 4 circular flows13
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • State and Local Government Expenditures and Revenue

The largest part of the state and local governments expenditures are on:

      • Education
      • Highways
      • Public welfare benefits
2 4 circular flows14
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • State and Local Government Expenditures
  • Figure 2.12(a) shows
  • state and local
  • government expenditures.
2 4 circular flows15
2.4 CIRCULAR FLOWS
  • State and Local Government Revenue

Figure 2.12(b)

shows state and

local government

revenue.