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slide1

INTRODUCTION

Rhizobium, a root nodule bacterium, has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with host legumes. It was estimated that a total of 175 million metric tones of N is fixed per year globally through biological nitrogen fixation involving Legume Rhizobium symbiosis. Rhizobia invade the roots of legume plants through root hairs, form effective pink colored nodules in the tap or lateral roots and lives symbiotically inside the nodules to fix nitrogen to plant accessible forms.

slide2

Rhizobium as component of INM

Rhizobium, a root nodule bacterium, has the ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with host legumes.It was estimated that a total of 175 million metric tones of N is fixed per year globally through biological nitrogen fixation involving Legume Rhizobium symbiosis

slide3

HOW RHIZOBIA INFECT LEGUME ??

Curling of root hair

Invagination point

Infection thread develop

Bacteria released

Nodular tissue develop

slide4

ISOLATION AND MAINTENANCE OF RHIZOBIUM

Collection of nodules

Selection of legume crops

Rhizobium isolation in media

Preservation in slant

Nodulation tests

Purified rhizobial cells

slide5

CHARACTERISTICS OF RHIZOBIUM

Rhizobia invade legume roots through root hairs

Form effective pink colored nodules in the roots

Lives symbiotically inside the nodules and fix nitrogen

Converts atmospheric nitrogen to plant accessible forms

Most rhizobia are host specific in nature

slide6

RHIZOBIUM CONTRIBUTES

50 – 200 KG NITROGEN PER HECTARE PER CROP

slide7

Rhizobium Inoculation and Crop Response

Inoculation Method

Rhizobium

culture

Nitrogen

Fixation

Crop

Response

slide8

Crop

Rhizobium species

Quantum of N fixed

(kg N/ha/yr)

Soybean

R. japonicum

60-80

Alfalfa

R. meliloti

100-200

Clover

R. trifolii

100-200

Groundnut

R. sp.

50-60

Pea

R. leguminosarum

52-77

Cowpea

R. sp.

80-85

Green/ Black gram

R. leguminosarum

50-55

Bengal gram

Bradyrhizobium sp.

85-110

Contribution of Rhizobium in biological N fixation

slide9

LET US SUM UP

Rhizobiumfix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiotic association with host legumes.

It was estimated that a total of 175 million metric tonnes of N is fixed per year through legume-Rhizobium symbiosis.

Rhizobium lives symbiotically inside the nodules and fix nitrogen which is converted to plant accessible forms.

Contd…..

slide10

Contd…..

Rhizobia invade the roots of legume plants through root hairs and form effective pink colored nodules in the tap or lateral roots.

Most Rhizobia are host specific and nodulate specific legumes.

slide11

ASSESSMENT

Q. Choose the correct answer :

i) From which crop do you expect to isolate Rhizobium?

a) Cereal crops c) Legumes

b)Oilseeds d) Grasses

ii) How much Nitrogen does Rhizobium contribute?

a)10-50 kg c) 200-250 kg

b)50-200 kg d) 400-500 kg

Contd…

slide12

Contd…

iii) How much rhizobial culture required inoculate 30 M ha legume crop?

a) 5,000 tonnes c) 15,000 tonnes

b) 20,000 tonnes d) 10,000 tonnes

iv) What type of nodules generally selected for isolation of effective rhizobia?

a) White-coloured c) Pink-coloured

b) Green-coloured d) Blue-coloured

slide13

ASSESSMENT

Model Answers :

i) Legumes

ii) 50-200 kg Nitrogen

iii) 15,000 tonnes

iv) Pink-coloured nodules

references
REFERENCES

i) Soil Microbiology – N. S.SubbaRao

ii) Advances in Microbiology – N. S.SubbaRao

iii) Bio-fertilizer and Organic Farming – NIIR Board

iv) Nitrogen fixing organisms

(Pure and applied aspects) – J. I. Sprent and P. Sprent