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Evolving Toward the Modern. The Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1648. RENAISSANCE. Rebirth of the humanistic spirit—at once pagan from classical antiquity and Christian-- rethinking of the place of human beings in a Christian “chain of being.”

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evolving toward the modern

Evolving Toward the Modern

The Renaissance and Reformation, 1350-1648

  • Rebirth of the humanistic spirit—at once pagan from classical antiquity and Christian-- rethinking of the place of human beings in a Christian “chain of being.”
  • Began in the Italian Cities in the early 14th century and spread to northern Europe by 1500
  • Led to changes in consciousness among the elites, to new political orders, to new religious beliefs.
reformation 1517 1648
  • Emergence of Protestantism which emphasized the role of the believer in salvation over the intercession of the church
  • Divided Europe into a Protestant North and a Catholic South
  • Led to a resurgent, militant, and reformed Catholicism
factors ending the middle ages
Factors ending the Middle Ages
  • Scholasticism—brought renewed attention to classical philosophy
  • Crusades—rise of Italian cities and contact with far-off cultures and ideas
  • Black Death—weakened hold of medieval institutions and beliefs
  • Conspicuous consumption among families made wealthy by renewed trade—they became Renaissance patrons
black death 1348
Black Death--1348
  • Reduced European population by 1/3
  • Weakened feudal system and strengthened position of surviving laboring people.
  • Just as humanism spawned a “can do” spirit among the elite, the black death challenged the assumptions of medieval society for the masses.
renaissance began w philology
Renaissance began w/ Philology
  • Petrarch—(1304-1374) read works of the Ancient Romans and determined that their values were different from those of his own day.—compare him with Dante.
  • Lorenzo Valla (1406-1467) demonstrated that the Donation of Constantine was likely a forgery
Petrarch & Laura: For a Woman he would never know; for a woman he would never have; he would change the world forever.

A Poem from Petrarch’s Il Canzoniere

It was on that day when the sun's raywas darkened in pity for its Maker,that I was captured, and did not defend myself,because your lovely eyes had bound me, Lady.It did not seem to me to be a time to guard myselfagainst Love's blows: so I went onconfident, unsuspecting; from that, my troublesstarted, amongst the public sorrows.Love discovered me all weaponless,and opened the way to the heart through the eyes,which are made the passageways and doors of tears:so that it seems to me it does him little honourto wound me with his arrow, in that state,he not showing his bow at all to you who are armed.

renaissance philology supported humanism
RENAISSANCE philology supported Humanism
  • Humanism didn’t seek to replace God with man but gloried in man as God’s special creation.
  • Humanists like Pico Della Mirandola 1463-1494) gloried human potential in his De hominis dignitate: “This is the culminating gift of God, this is the supreme and marvelous felicity of man…that he can be that which he wills to be.”
renaissance humanism
Renaissance Humanism
  • Really it was a Christian Humanism but a humanism that a corrupt church hierarchy could hardly control.
  • It was heavily influence by Platonism (Plato’s theory of the forms) which was reintroduced into Western Europe with the collapse of the Byzantine Empire in 1453.
  • Orthodox Catholic theology had a strong tradition of SCHOLASTICISM—mixing of Greco-Roman Philosophy with Christian Doctrine
renaissance art
Renaissance Art
  • Reflected emerging Platonism—ideal forms
  • Reflected need of wealthy Kings, capitalists, and popes for conspicuous adornment.
  • Focused on human beings—as God’s special creation.
  • Northern Renaissance painters were especially focused on exact detail and their scenes of everday life serve as an important historical source.
triad of renaissance greats
Triad of Renaissance Greats
  • Michaelangelo (1495-1564)
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
  • Raphael Santi (1483-1520)
new political ideas
New Political Ideas
  • Humanists looked to history to explain political success and failure.
  • Inspired by Machiavelli, Dynastic States justify their actions in two ways: appeal to the inherent Christian morality in the action and raison d’etat or reason of state.
  • Powerful Monarchs—France’s Louis XI, the Spider King, England’s Henry VII and Henry VII, and Spain’s Carlos I (Charles V)--suppress nobles, violate civil liberties, challenge the church, and attempt to build vast empires overseas to enhance the power of their states.
wars of the roses in england 1455 1485
Wars of the Roses in England (1455-1485)
  • Dispute over which of branch of Edward III’s family ought to rule England.
  • Ended the Feudal phase of England’s monarchy
  • To secure its claim the Tudor’s had to reward their supporters and cultivate a nascent English Nationalism
100 years war
100 Years War
  • Fought between English Royal Family (Plantagenet) and the French House of Valois.
  • Disputed Succession after death of last Capetian
  • England nearly secured war following its victory at Agincourt (1415)
  • Joan of Arc inspired Charles VII (French Claimant to throne) to oust English
  • English expelled from France in 1453
  • Louis XI (The Spider King) (1461-1483) expanded Royal Power and Promoted Nationalism.
unification of spain
Unification of Spain
  • La Reconquista
  • Marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castille in 1469 set stage for Spanish Dyarchy—union of country under rule of the two monarchs.
  • Their descendants would claim both kingdoms. (Charles I/V [1516-1556])
european political culture
European Political Culture
  • Powerful kings promoted patriotism at the expense of the old feudal nobility and the church.
  • Powerful kings promoted national interest according to raison d’etat. Religion was a tool of power, not an end to its exercise.
  • Balance of power concept emerged.
humanist challenged the church
Erasmus of Rotterdam (1466-1536) in Praise of Folly made sport of Church officials, yet believed the thinking man was God’s special creation.Humanist challenged the Church
crisis in the church
Crisis in the Church
  • Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy- 1305-1377 (Papal see in Avignon)
  • Great Schism (1378-1415)—Two Popes
  • Borgia Popes—such as Alexander VI (1492-1503)—were worldly and corrupt.
  • Humanist critiques found fertile soil.
reformation built upon humanism
Reformation Built Upon Humanism
  • Church Corruption
  • Emergent Nationalism
  • Emergence of Printing
  • Renaissance Humanism
martin luther 1483 1546 case study
Martin Luther (1483-1546)—Case Study
  • Cried to St. Anthony for deliverance in a fierce storm and switched from law to theology.
  • Became a Seminary professor and used his skills as a philologist—working first with the Psalms and then with the New Testament—to become a great teacher
  • Came to question core Catholic doctrines because he couldn’t find support for them in the text.
  • 95 THESES—Wittenburg, Oct. 31, 1517.
  • Sola scriptura; sola fidei
luther benefited from german nationalism
Luther Benefited from German Nationalism
  • German princes protected Luther from Papal Reprisals and Catholic Princes
  • Luther’s Protestant Ideas spread and major wars were fought from 1529 to 1648 between Catholic and Protestant States in Central Europe
the nature of protestantism was schism
The Nature of Protestantism was Schism
  • Scores of Protestant Sects emerged throughout Europe
  • Major version of Protestantism was articulated by John Calvin (1509-1564)
  • Calvin’s Doctrine of Election—shaped England and English Colonies in North America
summary of calvin s theology
Total depravity

Unlimited atonement

Limited election

Irresistible grace

Perseverance of the Saints

Summary of Calvin’s Theology
english reformation
English Reformation
  • Began as an attempt by Henry VIII to produce a male heir
  • Evolved unevenly between 1534 and 1573 between attempts to return England to Catholicism and purge the Church of England from vestiges of Catholicism.
  • Elizabethan settlement created an English church that was Protestant in Doctrine but Catholic in liturgy.
  • Satisfied all but English Catholics and Puritans
  • Foundations for English Constitutional crisis and Civil War in 17th century.
henry s quest for an heir
Henry VIII married Catherine, Arthur of Brittany’s widow via papal dispensation

Their daughter Mary, but no sons, survived to adulthood

Henry lusted after Anne Boleyn and also believed his marriage was cursed by God

Pope Clement VII’s fear of Catherine’s nephew Charles V kept him from granting divorce

Henry fired both Thomas, Cardinal Wolsey, and Thomas More as chancellor, because they would not cooperate with Henry

Henry’s quest for an heir
dynastic divorce and a new divinity
Henry worked through parliament to get the divorce

Act of Supremacy, Act of Succession, Treason Act, Act of Annates

Henrecian Church essentially the Catholic Church without the Pope

Dissenting churchmen were executed in 1535

Pilgrimage of Grace was quashed in 1536

Monastic lands were plundered—560 by 1539

Act of the Six Articles (1539)

Dynastic Divorce and a New Divinity
henry viii 1509 1547

Henry VIII (1509-1547)

His quest for a male heir, unleashed the Reformation in England

progress of english reformation
Progress of English Reformation
  • Edward VI (1547-1552) was directed by Protestant advisors to renounce Henry’s 6 Articles in Favor of a Protestant Church.
  • Mary (1552-1558) sought to restore England to Catholicism; she had a few Protestant leaders burned at the stake.
  • Elizabeth (1558-1603) treaded lightly on the Religious issue, but punished her political opponents—many of whom were Catholic—and made religion fully a matter of state.
  • The Elizabethan Settlement, accomplished in a series of laws by 1573, made England Protestant in Doctrine, Catholic in liturgy.
catholic church responds
Catholic Church Responds
  • Major Series of Reforms between 1545 and 1583
  • Church corrects the most flagrant clerical abuses
  • Church reaffirms traditional doctrines
  • Jesuits and Franciscans hold people to the faith
so what
Catholic hegemony further weakened

New political ethics fueled by Renaissance Humanism—Machiavelli

Dynastic States grow in power

Religious Wars

Humanism leads to Exploration

Reformation adds religious element to colonial rivalry between Catholic and Protestant countries

So What?
religious wars
Religious Wars
  • In the German States, Protestant and Catholic Princes fight from 1529 to 1555, until the Peace of Augsburg (cuius regio, eius religio)
  • In France, a disputed succession to the throne of France leads to the War of the 3 Henries (1584-1589), and the Protestant winner of the War, Henry IV, converts to Catholicism to appease the majority of his subjects. “Paris is well worth a mass.”
  • 30 Years War animated by religious beliefs
exploration colonization imperialism
Exploration, Colonization, & Imperialism
  • An initial justification for imperialism was an attempt to spread the true faith.
  • With Protestantism emerging, Catholic powers expanded to keep non-European lands from falling under the influence of Protestant error, and vice versa.