Augustan Portraiture and Ideology. The Ara Pacis and Valentino. Livia, wife Julia, daughter. Cleopatra, queen Octavia, sister. “… Augustus was conflicted about this quartet and the part they played in his life and that of Rome and its empire” ( Kleiner , CC 199).
The AraPacis and Valentino
“… Augustus was conflicted about this quartet and the part they played in his life and that of Rome and its empire” (Kleiner, CC 199).
Why can Kleiner make this claim?
What is significant about this portrait – both in terms of its provenance and its stylistics?
What do these portraits tell us about Caesar’s attitude towards the public presentation of his own image?
Why did Octavian choose Alexander as a model for his early portraiture?
Before 44 BCE After 20 BCE 10-1 BCE After 10 BCE
How did Augustus’ portraiture evolve?What challenges do art historians face in assigning portraits of Augustus to a particular age or time period?
(Livia’s villa), post-20 BCE
What is the significance of these texts and images?
“I forced the Parthians to restore to me the spoils and standards of three Roman armies and to ask as suppliants for the friendship of the Roman people” (RG 29.2)
King Phraates of Parthia, denarius, 19 BCE
“On humbled knees Phraates accepted the law and rule of Caesar” (Hor. Epist. 1.12.27-29
“These standards I deposited in the innermost shrine of the Temple of Mars Ultor” (RG 29.2)
“Parthian, you return the eagles and you surrender the bows that have been overcome: now you do not possess any more tokens of our disgrace” (Ovid Fasti 5.593-4)
Central scene: Mars/Tiberius; she-wolf or army dog; Parthian
Deities: Aurora; Caelus/Sol/ Saturn; Venus; Apollo; Diana
Provinces: Hispania or Armenia; Gaul
Personfication: Tellus; Cybele (Phrygian/Trojan mother goddess)
What is the significance of these personficiations in the context of Augustan ideology?
Tellus with cornucopia
Tympanum of Trojan Mother Goddess
Galinsky argues that the Prima Porta draws upon Polykleitos’ 5th c. Doryphoros and Lysippos’ Hellenistic Alexander (here, both Roman copies from Pompeii). Why is this significant?
LuciusIulius Caesar (17 BCE-2 CE)Corinth Museum, after 4 CE
What do these portraits reveal about Augustan propaganda?
FER(IAE) EX S(ENATUS) C(ONSULTO) Q(UOD) E(O) D(IE) ARA PACIS AUG(USTAE) IN CAMP(O) MAR(TIO) CONSTITUTA EST NERONE ET VARO COS.(Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum 12.24, in reference to July 14, 13 BCE)"Holiday, by decree of the Senate, because on that day the Altar of Augustan Peace was founded in the Campus Martius, in the consulship of Nero and Varus." FERIAE EX S(ENATUS) C(ONSULTO) QUO[D EO] DIE ARA PACIS AUGUSTA[E IN CAMPO ] MARTIO DEDICATA [E]ST DRUSO ET CRISPINO C[OS].(Inscriptiones Italiae 13.2.117, in reference to January 30, 9 BCE = Livia’s birthday)"Holiday, by decree of the Senate, because on that day the Altar of Augustan Peace was dedicated in the Campus Martius, in the consulship of Drusus and Crispinus."
What is the significance of the altar’s orientation?
How does this scene reflect Augustan ideology?
How does this scene reflect Augustan ideology and what makes it “polysemiotic”?Sky, Pax / Venus Genetrix / Terra / Tellus / Italia / Imperium / Ceres, Sea
How do the decorative elements – acanthus leaves, tendrils, etc. – connect to the Augustan ideological program and enhance the viewer’s experience?
What is the intended interplay among the processions, the four smaller panels, and the function of the Ara Pacis? How is the monument polysemiotic and multivalent?
Res Gestae would have been displayed on the doorposts
Tomb markers of Marcellus and Octavia(Gaius Marcellus, son of Octavia, husband of Julia & son-in-law and nephew of Augustus,and Octavia, sister of Augustus)
Marcellus s(on of) G(aius) Octavia d(aughter of) G(aius)
of Augustus Caesar of Augu[stus Caesar]