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WASH in Schools The Parma Ministerial Declaration for WASH in schools in EECCA region. Sascha Gabizon, Executive Director, WECF Margriet Samwel, Coordinator Water Programme, WECF. Sanitation in EECCA region Parma Ministerial Declaration Lessons from 10-country School Sanitation program

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WASH in Schools

The Parma Ministerial Declaration for WASH in schools in EECCA region

Sascha Gabizon, Executive Director, WECF

Margriet Samwel, Coordinator Water Programme, WECF

slide2

Sanitation in EECCA region

Parma Ministerial Declaration

Lessons from 10-country School Sanitation program

Ideas for implementing Parma declaration

Content:

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School toilets rural areas:

Far away, smelly, insects

Covered in excreta

No hand-washing

No privacy, no waste-bins

Groundwater pollution

est. 30 million people do not have safe sanitation in EU alone, how many in EECCA?

Uzbekistan

Armenia

Ukraine

slide5

Many schools build without toilets

Hardware often unsustainable

Software not provided

“shit smeared over the walls”

“cleaning materials ‘reused’”

“girls harassed on way to toilet”

“girls ‘keep it up’ all day”

“blather/urinary track infections”

Current Situation School Sanitation in EECCA region

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Sanitation in EECCA region

Parma Ministerial Declaration

Lessons from 10-country School Sanitation program

Ideas for implementing Parma declaration

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Ministerial declaration endorsed by 53 Member States attending the 5th Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health in Parma, Italy on 10-12 March 2010.

Consist of: 1) Ministerial Declaration and 2) Commitment to Act

http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0011/78608/E93618.pdf

Parma Declaration on Environment and Health

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Through the declaration the participating governments agreed to implement national programmes to provide equal opportunities to each child by 2020 by ensuring access to safe water and sanitation, opportunities for physical activity and a healthy diet, improved air quality and an environment free of toxic chemicals

Parma Declaration on Environment and Health

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3.We are committed to act on the key environment and health challenges of our time. These include:(b)the health risks to children and other vulnerable groups posed by poor environmental, working and living conditions (especially the lack of water and sanitation)

Parma Ministerial Declaration

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4.We will address these challenges by setting up or strengthening existing mechanisms or structures that can ensure effective implementation, promote local actions and ensure active participation

Parma Ministerial Declaration

5 we will intensify efforts to develop improve and implement health and environmental legislation
5.We will intensify efforts to develop, improve and implement health and environmental legislation

Parma Ministerial Declaration

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5.We will intensify efforts to develop, improve and implement health and environmental legislation

6.We will ensure that youth participation is facilitated

Parma Ministerial Declaration

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8. We encourage international stakeholders, including international financial institutions, and the European Commission to offer further scientific, political, technical and financial assistance

Parma Ministerial Declaration

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10.We endorse and will implement the „Commitment to act“ and the goals and targets included therein. That document is an integral part of this Declaration.

Parma Ministerial Declaration

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A. Protecting children’s health

1.We reconfirm our commitment to prioritized actions under the regional priority goals (RPGs) in the Children’s Environment and Health Action Plan for Europe (CEHAPE) as indicated below. We will strive to attain the targets in the RPGs as set out below. Regional Priority Goal 1: Ensuring public health by improving access to safe water and sanitation

Parma Commitment to Act

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A. Protecting children’s health

1. ii.We will strive to provide each child with access to safe water and sanitation in homes, child care centres, kindergartens, schools, health care institutions and public recreational water settings by 2020, and to revitalize hygiene practices.

Parma Commitment to Act

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Sanitation in EECCA region

Parma Ministerial Declaration

Lessons from 10-country School Sanitation program

Ideas for implementing Parma declaration

soviets made pit latrines obligatory in the 1930s in some cases punished with prison
“Soviets made pit latrines obligatory in the 1930s - in some cases punished with prison”

Lessons Learned from 10-country WECF sanitation program

16 000 pupils and teachers using wecf school toilets total direct cost per user 37 euro average
16.000 pupils and teachers using WECF school-toilets

Total direct cost per user: 37 euro (average)

50 sustainable school toilet-buildings in 10 countries since 2003

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Because in target villages:

No central water supply to flush

No central sewage system

Benefits:

More hygienic

No smell - can be indoor (climate!)

Reuse of nutrients

Drinking water source protection

All 50 school toilet buildings use Dry Urine Diversion Systems

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Indoor toilets where-ever possible

• Separate rooms for boys and girls

Specialteenagegirls facilities (depends on culture) for girls during menstruation period

• Privacy: doors can be closed/locked

Squatting slaps - not sitting seats (hygiene)

• Proper smell prevention

• Hand wash basin and simple grey water treatment

• High quality material for long term sustainability

Big urine tanks for 6 months storage time (hygiene)

• Footprint near the squatting slab so children know where to stand.

Best Practices Hardware

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First outdoor UDD school Toilet for 200 pupils in Romania : 8 years in use, total cost € 6000

Trainings

Construction

Urine storage

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First indoor school toilet for 350 pupils + teachers in Armenia: €20,000

Waterless urinals at different heights

Squatting toilet with urine diversion

Urine storage tanks in the basement

Built by AWHHW, Quelque Chose architects and TUHH

Wash basins and the toilet care-taker

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Agree in advance on responsibilities and financial contribution of the school

Employing a “care-taker” is key

Obtain in advance approvals needed (authorities for education, architecture, health, environment, emergency/utilities, fire, electricity)

Hygiene education (PHAST*) for pupils, teachers and parents

Usage, operation and maintenance of facilities trainings for pupils, teachers and personnel

“how to...” educational posters in the toilet

Training on the re-use of nutrients (or energy)

* Participatory Health And Sanitation Transformation (WHO)

Best Practices ‘Software’

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Who cleans the toilet?

Who collects ash/saw dust for the toilet?

Who checks the toilet on technical defects?

Who is responsible for operation and maintenance?

What to do when something is broken?

How should the O&M be financed?

Who develops an education strategy?

How will awareness be created among the school children?

How can the school guarantee that the toilet will be properly used?

Check-list school MoU

slide29

First of its kind, gives an indication

3 step methodology:

Questionnaire for female and male pupils

31 (29 boys) questions related to

Acceptance - Dignity - Gender

Health - Absenteeism - Menstruation (girls only)

Absenteeism “class book” survey

Focus group discussion (only with pupils, no teachers present)

Sample

10 schools with UDD toilets: total 361 pupils

8 reference schools with pit latrine: total 245 pupils

5 countries: Moldova, Ukraine, Armenia, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan

WECF Impact Assessment

slide31

On new toilets:

All children are very satisfied about new toilets because of greater comfort (clean, warm, no smell, hand-washing facilities, short distance etc.)

Especially girls experience benefits because of greater privacy and washing facilities

On pit latrines:

Especially girls avoid using the pit latrines

In Central Asia girls skipped school during their menstruation period because of the bad pit latrine

In Central Asia children went to home during classes to go the toilet because of the bad pit latrine

In all countries some girls use latrines during classes to have more privacy

Pupils Focus Group Discussions some preliminary results

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School Sanitation: Global Priority

Lessons from 10-country program

Hardware: best and worst practices

Software: best and worst practices

Ideas for 5 yr drive

school sanitation should be a global priority
School Sanitation - Should be a global Priority

School sanitation:

  • does not count for Millennium Dev Goals
  • excluded from JMP
  • is core responsibility of government
  • is essential for girls school attendance
  • “discriminating” factor for girls
  • needs innovative financial mechanisms
  • can be a win-win deal
  • should be policy priority
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Choice of ‘hardware’ does matter

Indoor toilets with re-use systems are good solution for non-piped areas

Need to be added to national codes (construction, hygiene, agriculture)

Not more expensive then VIP pit-latrines

Potential income generation from re-use, energy - can cover maintenance costs

Potentially saves costs drinking water treatment

General reflections on School Sanitation - ‘Hardware’

slide35

No ‘hardware’ works without ‘software’

Hygiene needs to be taught (also in EU)

Cleaning of toilets is not a habit amongst latrine users: needs to be learned

Incentives and education for pupils against vandalism

Teenage girls need to feel ‘safe’ regarding menstruation - waste baskets, doors that lock, own toilets

Inclusive sanitation (e.g. children with disabilities)

Pupils should feel ownership, know its their right

General Recommendations School Sanitation - ‘Software’

slide36

Link to implementation of UN GA 2010 resolution “human right to water and sanitation”

Call on all countries to set targets for achieving 100% safe school sanitation

Define “sustainable” sanitation (5 SuSanA criteria)

Establish principle: “no toilet - no school”

Post-2015 inclusion of public sanitation in MDGs

WASH in Schools: focus of 1 of the 5 years!

Link Parma Implementation and 5 yr Sustainable Sanitation Drive

slide37

Funding priority from public budget

“Total sanitation” incentive approach does not work for public buildings

Global School Sanitation Fund (e.g. DK, EBRD)

Aim:

pilots in each country - examples convince

All schools in a few countries (Moldova, Lesotho)

Incentives for partnerships including civil society

Communicate the successes

5 Yr Drive - Financing School Sanitation

slide38

Guidelines with best practices for school sanitation hardware and software

Baseline of current school sanitation (e.g. Moldova)

Comparison of different hardware options

Capacity building tools for re-use sanitation systems

Educational and training tools on hygiene, use, maintenance

Possible partners....

Our plans: extend Guidelines Best Practices School Sanitation ?

slide39

Draw on work done within PWH

Capacity building online tool on small scale sanitation (with Germany and Czech republic)

Guidelines on public participation in sanitation decision making (with Romania)

Guidelines on equitable access (with France)

Other areas ?